Endnotes to Appendix 1 Part B
33. It should be noted that though the publication date of Women, Authority
and the Bible, in which articles 1-4 appear, is 1986, the essays were written for a conference in 1984,
before most of the authors had access to my 1985 article.
34. Pages 46-47, 52-53.
35. Philip B. Payne, "Response," in Women, Authority and the Bible, ed.
Mickelsen, pp. 121-124.
36. Gordon D. Fee, First Corinthians (NICNT; Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1987), pp.
37. The Mickelsens use the number 8 out of 180; Payne (p. 123) uses 9, but the form
of the argument is the same.
38. Berkeley and Alvera Mickelsen, "What Does Kephale Mean in the New Testament?"
in Women, Authority and the Bible, ed. Mickelsen, p. 104.
39. Payne, "Response", ibid., p. 123. In footnote 35, p. 123, Payne
explains that he only counts nine exceptions (verses where kephale means leader ): Judges 11:11;
2 Samuel 22:44; Psalm 18:43; Isaiah 7:8-9; Lamentations 1:5; Deuteronomy 28:13, 44; and Isaiah 9:14, because
five others are in variant readings found in some but not all manuscripts (Judges 10:18; 11:8-9; 1 Kings
(LXX 3 Kings) 8:1; 20:12), and he thinks that in yet three others (Deuteronomy 32:42; 1 Chronicles 12:19;
Psalm 140:10) the word refers to the physical head and is not a metaphor for leader or authority (in these
last three he is correct, and I did not cite those as examples of leader ).
40. Fee, First Corinthians, p. 503.
41. This is also the case when referring to a related idea, the beginning point
of something, such as the beginning of a night watch (Judges 7:19; Lamentations 2:19), or the beginning
of a period of time (Isaiah 40:21; 41:4, 26: 48:16; 1 Chronicles 16:7, etc.).
This is interesting in light of the use of kephale in Orphic Fragments 21a, where kephale
seems to mean beginning or first in a series (see below). If this meaning was commonly recognized at the
time of the LXX, then kephale could also have been used in these texts, but arche was preferred
by the translators.
We should also note that when the New Testament wants to say that Christ became the source of eternal
salvation (Hebrews 5:9), it uses not kephale but a perfectly good Greek word meaning source, aitios,
source, cause. This does not of course prove that kephale could not also mean source in a metaphorical
sense, but it shows that in both the Old Testament (Genesis 2:10) and the New Testament (Hebrews 5:9),
where there is a text that unambiguously speaks of source in the sense that the Mickelsens and others
claim kephale takes, the term used is not kephale but something that means source without
Philip Payne, "Response", p. 119, n. 21, quotes S. C. Woodhouse, English-Greek Dictionary
(London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 19322) to show that kephale does not mean authority or chief. Although
we think that may be an oversight in light of the examples we earlier adduced, Payne should perhaps also
have mentioned that Woodhouse lists under source of rivers, etc. pege, krene, and krounos,
and under origin arche, pege , and rhiza (root), but not kephale in either case.
It does not seem fair to cite Woodhouse to show lack of support on one side but fail to note that he gives
no support to the other side either.
Moreover, Payne fails to tell the reader that Woodhouse's Dictionary is written to help students write
compositions in Attic Greek and is specifically taken from the vocabulary of authors from Aeschylus to
Demosthenes (pp. v, vi) (ca. 500 B.C.-322 B.C.). It does not cover the Koine Greek of the New Testament
at all. Such a citation is troubling in a widely read popular book, for it conveys to the non-specialist
reader an appearance of scholarly investigation while in actual fact there is little substantive relevance
for it in the present discussion.
42. The Mickelsens actually dismiss six texts as having textual variants (p. 104),
but they do not specify which those are. I am using the number five from the response by Philip Payne (pp.
43. They do not specify exactly which texts they are not counting because of textual
variants, but these five do have variants in the readings of Codex Alexandrinus, one of the major ancient
manuscripts of the Septuagint.
44. The second instance in Isaiah 7:8 is found in several manuscripts and omitted
only by Sinaiticus among major manuscripts.
45. Once again the enumeration is not exact between the Mickelsens and Payne. The
Mickelsens say that four examples have the head-tail metaphor, but do not list them. Payne specifies these
three texts in his response, and I have used his number here.
46. Mickelsen and Mickelsen, What Does Kephale Mean…? p. 103.
47. Payne, "Response", p. 123, n. 35.
48. See note 38 with reference to my inclusion of Deuteronomy 28:13, 44; Jeremiah
31:7 (LXX 38:7).
49. In addition to the three verses listed in the previous footnote, the articles
by Payne and the Mickelsens have persuaded me to look again at Lamentations 1:5 (her foes have become
the head; her enemies prosper), and to count this as a legitimate instance of kephale meaning
leader or authority over. These four examples, together with the deletion of the one I had erroneously
counted (see above, p. 445, for discussion), bring my total to sixteen in the Septuagint rather than the
thirteen I had previously listed.
50. Philip Payne (article 3, p. 123) disagrees with the sense authority over in
this text because he says the translators replaced the idea of leader with 'heads [meaning tops] of the
staffs' they carried. I discussed this interpretation on pp. 441-442, above, in response to Richard Cervin.
51. In this second occurrence of head in this verse, the LXX has arche (here
in the sense of leader, ruler), not kephale.
52. Joseph Fitzmyer says of this passage, The notion of supremacy or authority is
surely present, and expressed by kephale (Another Look, p. 508).
53. In fact, aunt only occurs once in the English Bible (RSV), at Leviticus
18:14. There are many other commonly understood English words that occur only once in the Bible, such as
(using the RSV): abstinence, acquaintance, afternoon, agent, anklet, anvil, armpit, aroma, arsenal,
audience. Other common words occur only twice: ambassador, ant, antelope, ape, awl.
54. I discuss the absence of the meaning leader, authority over from Liddell-Scott
in the next section of this article.
55. Page 107.
56. I discussed the legitimacy of using Liddell-Scott's definition of source above,
pp. 432-433, 453-454.
57. My earlier article (pp. 47-48) cites definitions from BAGD, Thayer, Cremer, New
International Dictionary of New Testament Theology (henceforth referred to as NIDNTT), and (for the
Septuagint) Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (henceforth referred to as TDNT). See also
58. Joseph A. Fitzmyer, "Another look at Kephale in 1 Corinthians 11:3,"
NTS 35 (1989), p. 511.
Richard Cervin is hardly correct when he says the contributors and editors of [Liddell-Scott] included
a team of theologians, Milligan among them (p. 86). In fact, the Preface to Liddell-Scott mentions no team
of theologians but simply says that the results of the study of the meanings of words in the New Testament
are readily accessible and mentions some lexicons that are generally sufficient (p. ix). H. Stuart Jones,
the editor of the most recent edition of Liddell-Scott, mentions only that Professor Milligan sent him
some advance proofs of his specialty lexicon of the papyri as they illustrate New Testament usage. Jones
also mentions A. H. McNeil and A. Llewellyn Davies regarding their advice on the Septuagint and the Hexapla,
but the preface mentions nothing else concerning any team of theologians.
From Recovering Biblical Manhood & Womanhood edited by Piper J and Grudem W, p. 426-32.
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