Endnotes to Appendix 1 Part B
68. Appendix in Gilbert Bilezikian, Beyond Sex Roles, 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids,
MI: Baker Book House, 1990), pp. 215-252.
69. Although Dr. Bilezikian wrote these criticisms before Mr. Cervin's article, they
apparently came up with the criticisms independently, because Mr. Cervin does not indicate that he has seen
Dr. Bilezikian's article.
70. See above, pp. 445-446.
71. My earlier article (pp. 47-48) cites definitions from BAGD, Thayer, Cremer, NIDNTT,
and (for the Septuagint) TDNT. Since then two more lexicons have been published: the sixth edition of Walter
Bauer's Griechisch-deutsches W rterbuch, ed. Kurt and Barbara Aland (Berlin: Walter DeGruyter, 1988), pp.
874-875, lists no such meaning as source but does give the meaning Oberhaupt (chief, leader) (p. 875).
And the new Greek English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on Semantic Domains, 2 vols., ed. Johannes
P. Louw and Eugene E. Nida (New York: United Bible Societies, 1988), lists for kephale the meaning,
one who is of supreme or preeminent status, in view of authority to order or command-'one who is the head
of, one who is superior to, one who is supreme over' (vol. 1, p. 739), but they give no meaning such as
source, origin. In light of such unanimity of testimony to one meaning and absence of testimony to another,
it is difficult for me to understand how Dr. Bilezikian can speak of a lack of lexical agreement on the
meaning of kephale (p. 218).
72. See discussion above, p. 440.
73. See above the quotations from Plato, Philo, and Plutarch [quotations (3), (18),
(19), (20), (28), and (29)], pp. 440-442.
74. Bilezikian's objection that the Greek phrase hyper panta, over all things, cannot
mean authority over all things because hyper means above, not over (p. 244) carries little force: Whether
Christ is head over all things or above all things, He still has authority over all. Moreover, in the same
sentence Paul says that God has put all things under his feet (Ephesians 1:22). Paul's use of hyper here
to say that Christ is over all things probably picks up on his use of the related preposition hyperano,
far above, in verse 21, where Christ is said to be far above all rule and authority and power and dominion.
It is futile for Bilezikian to try to empty Ephesians 1:22 of the concept of Christ's universal authority.
Endnotes to Appendix 1 Part C
75. Appendix 3 in Hull, Equal to Serve, pp. 267-283.
76. See above, p. 454.
77. Mickelsen and Mickelsen, Women, Authority and the Bible, p. 100.
78. See BAGD, p. 112; G. W. Lampe, Patristic Greek Lexicon (Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1968), pp. 235-236; Liddell-Scott, p. 252, for arche meaning ruler, leader, authority.
For the texts which Kroeger quotes from Chrysostom and Athanasius, the translations given in Philip Schaff,
ed., A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church (28 vols. in two
series [1886-1900]; reprint ed., Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1952ff.), are not source (as Kroeger translates)
but first principle (Chrysotom, Homily 26 on 1 Corinthians 11, NPNF, first series, 12:151, col. 2) and
beginning (Athanasius, De Synodis 27:26, NPNF, second series, 4:465, col 2).
82. NTS 35 (1989), pp. 503-511. Fitzmyer is primarily responding to claims by R.
Scroggs and J. Murphy-O'Connor that kephale means source in 1 Corinthians 11:3.
83. (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1989), pp. 141-145.
84. See above, p. 535, n. 12, for their comment on Herodotus 4.91.
From Recovering Biblical Manhood & Womanhood edited by Piper J and Grudem W, p. 426-32.
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