Seven Spirits of God
In researching the question of whether God has more than one spirit, there is an Old Testament reference to the seven lamps
found in Zechariah's fifth prophecy (Zech 4:1-14). During this period, Cyrus the Great
encouraged the exiled Jews to return to Jerusalem to rebuild the Temple (Ezra 1:1-4),
and Zerubbabel, appointed as governor of Judah returns with the high priest Joshua to lead the construction
(Hag 1:1). In response to local hostility and construction delays
(Ezra 4:1-4), the prophet Zechariah's message was intended to encourage Zerubbabel and
Joshua in their rebuilding of the Temple by affirming that the Spirit of God was with them.
Then the angel who was speaking with me returned and roused me, as a man who is awakened from his sleep. He said
to me, "What do you see?" And I said, "I see, and behold, a lampstand all of gold with its bowl on the top of it, and its seven
lamps on it with seven spouts belonging to each of the lamps which are on the top of it; also two olive trees by it, one on the
right side of the bowl and the other on its left side." Then I said to the angel who was speaking with me saying, "What are these,
my lord?" So the angel who was speaking with me answered and said to me, "Do you not know what these are?" And I said, "No, my lord."
Then he said to me, "This is the word of the Lord to Zerubbabel saying, 'Not by might nor by power, but by My Spirit,' says
the Lord of hosts. What are you, O great mountain? Before Zerubbabel you will become a plain; and he will bring forth the top stone
with shouts of "Grace, grace to it!"'"
Also the word of the Lord came to me, saying, "The hands of Zerubbabel have laid
the foundation of this house, and his hands will finish it. Then you will know that the Lord of hosts has sent me to you. For who
has despised the day of small things? But these seven will be glad when they see the plumb line in the hand of Zerubbabel—these
are the eyes of the Lord which range to and fro throughout the earth." (Zech 4:1-10)
Note that Zechariah is told that the seven lamps on one lampstand
(Zech 4:2) is God's Spirit in the singular sense
(Zech 4:6). However, Zechariah later refer to these seven as separate entities and describes
them as the "eyes of the Lord which range to and fro throughout the earth" (Zech 4:10).
The understanding that the seven lamps represent the Holy Spirit is corroborated in the apostle John's account of the heavenly
Temple in which God, Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit are in each other's holy presence.
John to the seven churches that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace, from Him who is and who was and who
is to come, and from the seven Spirits who are before His throne, and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the
dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. (Rev 1:4-5)
Out from the throne come flashes of lightning and sounds and peals of thunder. And there were seven lamps
of fire burning before the throne, which are the seven Spirits of God; (Rev 4:5)
Not only is the Spirit of God an individual Being, but the apostle John indicates that Jesus Christ can possess the Holy Spirit
To the angel of the church in Sardis write: He who has the seven Spirits of God and the seven stars,
says this: "I know your deeds, that you have a name that you are alive, but you are dead."
And I saw between the throne (with the four living creatures) and the elders a Lamb standing, as if slain,
having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God, sent out into all the earth.
In this passage, the apostle John indicates that the seven eyes of the Lamb represent the seven Spirits of God;
thus, the lampstand containing the seven lamps is a figure of speech for the Holy Spirit.
Furthermore, this passage supports the view of the Holy Spirit having the attribute of omnipresence as It is "sent
out into all the earth" (Rev 5:6) and ranges "to and fro throughout the earth"