Jesus' description of Himself:
The first and the last, who was dead, and has come to life (Rev 2:8).
Later in Revelation, Jesus says, "I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end"
As first and last of the Greek alphabet, alpha and omega symbolize Jesus' role as the Creator and Judge of all
human life and history (the beginning and end of human history). And His sovereignty comes into view as the One who died and rose
Background: Forty miles north of Ephesus was Smyrna. As an important seaport, it was a wealthy city and known for its
science and medical education. Like Ephesus, it was a center for the Imperial Cult. A disciple of the apostle John, Polycarp, the
bishop of Smyrna, was burned at the stake in 156 A.D. for refusing to worship the Roman emperor (see
The Encyclical Epistle of the Church at Smyrna, Concerning the Martyrdom of St. Polycarp.).
Praise (rebuke is absent!):
I know your tribulation and your poverty (but you are rich), and the blasphemy by those who say they are
Jews and are not, but are a synagogue of Satan. Do not fear what you are about to suffer. Behold, the devil is about to cast some
of you into prison, so that you will be tested, and you will have tribulation for ten days. Be faithful until death, and I will give
you the crown of life. (Rev 2:9-10)
The church of Smyrna was recognized for their endurance of persecution, extreme poverty and suffering from slander.
1) Aware of their persecution by presumably other religions and cults, Jesus Christ commends the church of Smyrna
of their unwavering faithfulness.
2) Aware of their extreme material poverty, perhaps a reflection of the economic cost exacted by an antagonistic
society, Jesus Christ informs the Believers of Smyrna that their faith has made them rich (Rev 22:12).
3) Aware of the slander against them by ethnic Jews, Jesus Christ makes known that the Jews are not the true
children of Abraham and that that the source of their suffering is from followers of Satan. The implication is that anyone not
worshipping Jesus is worshipping Satan.
Without any word of relief, the church of Smyrna is exhorted to endure more until death, because they apparently
could. Of the seven churches addressed in Revelation, only Smyrna and Philadelphia were fully praised without any rebuke.
Promise to Believers:
He who overcomes will not be hurt by the second death (Rev 2:11;