Ordained as the bishop of Smyrna, a city north of Ephesus, by the apostle John (died
96-100 A.D.), Polycarp was recognized as one of the three Apostolic Fathers after Clement
of Rome and Ignatius of Antioch.
The Martyrdom of Polycarp in the second century is the oldest recorded eyewitness
testimony of the death of a Christian for his faith. After failing to burn on the stake
(chapter XV), Polycarp was stabbed to death by the Romans
Historically, this record provides an insight into the political situation of Christians
during the second century. Though not enforced strictly by the government, the Roman state
religion was worship of the Roman emperor. "Atheists", a term used in
chapter III, was used by Roman persecutors for people who
refused to worship the emperor. At this time, it is largely the Jews who sought the
persecution of Christians and publicly initiated the call for Polycarp’s death
(chapters III, XII).
In contrast to the public’s hatred towards Christians, the Roman
government gave Christians an opportunity to recant and not be punished immediately as
confessed criminals (chapters VIII,
Yet once in custody, Christians who did not recant Jesus Christ, were
subject to any form of public penalty or cruel torture that the magistrate chose.
In chapter IX, Polycarp also uses the
phrase "away with the atheists", as his Roman persecutors, in an ironic comment towards the
unbelieving Roman spectators.
It isn’t until 250 A.D. when the Roman government takes a more institutional approach
forcing Christians to renounce Christ and swear allegiance to Caesar or face death.
The Church of God which sojourns at Smyrna, to the Church of God sojourning in Philomelium,
and to all the congregations of the Holy and Catholic Church in every place: Mercy, peace,
and love from God the Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ, be multiplied.
CHAPTER I -- SUBJECT OF WHICH WE WRITE.
We have written to you, brethren, as to what relates to the martyrs, and especially to the
blessed Polycarp, who put an end to the persecution, having, as it were, set a seal upon it
by his martyrdom. For almost all the events that happened previously [to this one], took
place that the Lord might show us from above a martyrdom becoming the Gospel. For he waited
to be delivered up, even as the Lord had done, that we also might become his followers,
while we look not merely at what concerns ourselves but have regard also to our neighbours.
For it is the part of a true and well-founded love, not only to wish one's self to be saved,
but also all the brethren.
CHAPTER II -- THE WONDERFUL CONSTANCY OF THE MARTYRS.
All the martyrdoms, then, were blessed and noble which took place according to the will of
God. For it becomes us who profess greater piety than others, to ascribe the authority over
all things to God. And truly, who can fail to admire their nobleness of mind, and their
patience, with that love towards their Lord which they displayed?--who, when they were so
torn with scourges, that the frame of their bodies, even to the very inward veins and
arteries, was laid open, still patiently endured, while even those that stood by pitied
and bewailed them. But they reached such a pitch of magnanimity, that not one of them let
a sigh or a groan escape them; thus proving to us all that those holy martyrs of Christ, at
the very time when they suffered such torments, were absent from the body, or rather, that
the Lord then stood by them, and communed with them. And, looking to the grace of Christ,
they despised all the torments of this world, redeeming themselves from eternal punishment
by [the suffering of] a single hour. For this reason the fire of their savage executioners
appeared cool to them. For they kept before their view escape from that fire which is
eternal and never shall be quenched, and looked forward with the eyes of their heart to
those good things which are laid up for such as endure; things "which ear hath not heard,
nor eye seen, neither have entered into the heart of man," but were revealed by the Lord to
them, inasmuch as they were no longer men, but had already become angels. And, in like
manner, those who were condemned to the wild beasts endured dreadful tortures, being stretched
out upon beds full of spikes, and subjected to various other kinds of torments, in order
that, if it were possible, the tyrant might, by their lingering tortures, lead them to a
denial [of Christ].
CHAPTER III -- THE CONSTANCY OF GERMANICUS. THE DEATH OF POLYCARP IS
For the devil did indeed invent many things against them; but thanks be to God, he could
not prevail over all. For the most noble Germanicus strengthened the timidity of others by
his own patience, and fought heroically with the wild beasts. For, when the proconsul sought
to persuade him, and urged him to take pity upon his age, he attracted the wild beast towards
himself, and provoked it, being desirous to escape all the more quickly from an unrighteous
and impious world. But upon this the whole multitude, marvelling at the nobility of mind
displayed by the devout and godly race of Christians, cried out, "Away with the Atheists;
let Polycarp be sought out !"
CHAPTER IV -- QUINTUS THE APOSTATE.
Now one named Quintus, a Phrygian, who was but lately come from Phrygia, when he saw the
wild beasts, became afraid. This was the man who forced himself and some others to come
forward voluntarily [for trial]. Him the proconsul, after many entreaties, persuaded to
swear and to offer sacrifice. Wherefore, brethren, we do not commend those who give
themselves up [to suffering], seeing the Gospel does not teach so to do.
CHAPTER V --THE DEPARTURE AND VISION OF POLYCARP.
But the most admirable Polycarp, when he first heard [that he was sought for], was in no
measure disturbed, but resolved to continue in the city. However, in deference to the wish
of many, he was persuaded to leave it. He departed, therefore, to a country house not far
distant from the city. There he stayed with a few [friends], engaged in nothing else night
and day than praying for all men, and for the Churches throughout the world, according to
his usual custom. And while he was praying, a vision presented itself to him three days
before he was taken; and, behold, the pillow under his head seemed to him on fire. Upon
this, turning to those that were with him, he said to them prophetically," I must be burnt
CHAPTER VI -- POLYCARP IS BETRAYED BY A SERVANT.
And when those who sought for him were at hand, he departed to another dwelling, whither
his pursuers immediately came after him. And when they found him not, they seized upon two
youths [that were there], one of whom, being subjected to torture, confessed. It was thus
impossible that he should continue hid, since those that betrayed him were of his own household.
The Irenarch then (whose office is the same as that of the Cleronomus), by name Herod,
hastened to bring him into the stadium. [This all happened] that he might fulfill his
special lot, being made a partaker of Christ, and that they who betrayed him might undergo
the punishment of Judas himself.
CHAPTER VII -- POLYCARP IS FOUND BY HIS PURSUERS.
His pursuers then, along with horsemen, and taking the youth with them, went forth at
supper-time on the day of the preparation with their usual weapons, as if going out
against a robber. And being come about evening [to the place where he was], they found him
lying down in the upper room of a certain little house, from which he might have escaped
into another place; but he refused, saying, "The will of God be done." So when he heard
that they were come, he went down and spake with them. And as those that were present
marvelled at his age and constancy, some of them said, "Was so much effort made to capture
such a venerable man? Immediately then, in that very hour, he ordered that something to eat
and drink should be set before them, as much indeed as they cared for, while he besought
them to allow him an hour to pray without disturbance. And on their giving him leave, he
stood and prayed, being full of the grace of God, so that he could not cease for two full
hours, to the astonishment of them that heard him, insomuch that many began to repent that
they had come forth against so godly and venerable an old man.
CHAPTER VIII -- POLYCARP IS BROUGHT INTO THE CITY.
Now, as soon as he had ceased praying, having made mention of all that had at any time come
in contact with him, both small and great, illustrious and obscure, as well as the whole
Catholic Church throughout the world, the time of his departure having arrived, they set
him upon an ass, and conducted him into the city, the day being that of the great Sabbath.
And the Irenarch Herod, accompanied by his father Nicetes (both riding in a chariot), met
him, and taking him up into the chariot, they seated themselves beside him, and endeavoured
to persuade him, saying, "What harm is there in saying, Lord Caesar, and in sacrificing,
with the other ceremonies observed on such occasions, and so make sure of safety?" But he
at first gave them no answer; and when they continued to urge him, he said, "I shall not
do as you advise me." So they, having no hope of persuading him, began to speak bitter
words unto him, and cast him with violence out of the chariot, insomuch that, in getting
down from the carriage, he dislocated his leg [by the fall]. But without being disturbed,
and as if suffering nothing, he went eagerly forward with all haste, and was conducted to
the stadium, where the tumult was so great, that there was no possibility of being
CHAPTER IX -- POLYCARP REFUSES TO REVILE CHRIST.
Now, as Polycarp was entering into the stadium, there came to him a voice from heaven,
saying, "Be strong, and show thyself a man, O Polycarp !" No one saw who it was that spoke
to him; but those of our brethren who were present heard the voice. And as he was brought
forward, the tumult became great when they heard that Polycarp was taken. And when he came
near, the proconsul asked him whether he was Polycarp. On his confessing that he was, [the
proconsul] sought to persuade him to deny [Christ], saying, "Have respect to thy old age,"
and other similar things, according to their custom, [such as]," Swear by the fortune of
Caesar; repent, and say, Away with the Atheists." But Polycarp, gazing with a stern
countenance on all the multitude of the wicked heathen then in the stadium, and waving his
hand towards them, while with groans he looked up to heaven, said, "Away with the Atheists."
Then, the proconsul urging him, and saying, "Swear, and I will set thee at liberty,
reproach Christ;" Polycarp declared, "Eighty and six years have I served Him, and He never
did me any injury: how then can I blaspheme my King and my Saviour?"
CHAPTER X -- POLYCARP CONFESSES HIMSELF A CHRISTIAN.
And when the proconsul yet again pressed him, and said, "Swear by the fortune of Caesar,"
he answered, "Since thou art vainly urgent that, as thou sayest, I should swear by the
fortune of Caesar, and pretendest not to know who and what I am, hear me declare with
boldness, I am a Christian. And if you wish to learn what the doctrines of Christianity
are, appoint me a day, and thou shalt hear them." The proconsul replied, "Persuade the
people." But Polycarp said, "To thee I have thought it right to offer an account [of my
faith]; for we are taught to give all due honour (which entails no injury upon ourselves)
to the powers and authorities which are ordained of God. But as for these, I do not deem
them worthy of receiving any account from me."
CHAPTER XI -- NO THREATS HAVE ANY EFFECT ON POLYCARP.
The proconsul then said to him, "I have wild beasts at hand; to these will I cast thee,
except thou repent." But he answered, "Call them then, for we are not accustomed to repent
of what is good in order to adopt that which is evil; and it is well for me to be changed
from what is evil to what is righteous." But again the proconsul said to him, "I will cause
thee to be consumed by fire, seeing thou despisest the wild beasts, if thou wilt not repent."
But Polycarp said, "Thou threatenest me with fire which burneth for an hour, and after a
little is extinguished, but art ignorant of the fire of the coming judgment and of eternal
punishment, reserved for the ungodly. But why tarriest thou? Bring forth what thou
CHAPTER XII -- POLYCARP IS SENTENCED TO BE BURNED.
While he spoke these and many other like things, he was filled with confidence and joy,
and his countenance was full of grace, so that not merely did it not fall as if troubled by
the things said to him, but, on the contrary, the proconsul was astonished, and sent his
herald to proclaim in the midst of the stadium thrice, "Polycarp has confessed that he is a
Christian." This proclamation having been made by the herald, the whole multitude both of
the heathen and Jews, who dwelt at Smyrna, cried out with uncontrollable fury, and in a
loud voice, "This is the teacher of Asia, the father of the Christians, and the overthrower
of our gods, he who has been teaching many not to sacrifice, or to worship the gods."
Speaking thus, they cried out, and besought Philip the Asiarch to let loose a lion upon
Polycarp. But Philip answered that it was not lawful for him to do so, seeing the shows of
wild beasts were already finished. Then it seemed good to them to cry out with one consent,
that Polycarp should be burnt alive. For thus it behooved the vision which was revealed to
him in regard to his pillow to be fulfilled, when, seeing it on fire as he was praying, he
turned about and said prophetically to the faithful that were with him," I must be burnt
CHAPTER XIII -- THE FUNERAL PILE IS ERECTED,
This, then, was carried into effect with greater speed than it was spoken, the multitudes
immediately gathering together wood and fagots out of the shops and baths; the Jews
especially, according to custom, eagerly assisting them in it. And when the funeral pile
was ready, Polycarp, laying aside all his garments, and loosing his girdle, sought also to
take off his sandals, a thing he was not accustomed to do, inasmuch as every one of the
faithful was always eager who should first touch his skin. For, on account of his holy life,
he was, even before his martyrdom, adorned with every kind of good. Immediately then they
surrounded him with those substances which had been prepared for the funeral pile. But when
they were about also to fix him with nails, he said, "Leave me as I am; for He that giveth
me strength to endure the fire, will also enable me, without your securing me by nails, to
remain without moving in the pile."
CHAPTER XIV -- THE PRAYER OF POLYCARP.
They did not nail him then, but simply bound him. And he, placing his hands behind him, and
being bound like a distinguished ram [taken] out of a great flock for sacrifice, and
prepared to be an acceptable burnt-offering unto God, looked up to heaven, and said, "O
Lord God Almighty, the Father of thy beloved and blessed Son Jesus Christ, by whom we have
received the knowledge of Thee, the God of angels and powers, and of every creature, and of
the whole race of the righteous who live before thee, I give Thee thanks that Thou hast
counted me, worthy of this day and this hour, that I should have a part in the number of
Thy martyrs, in the cup of thy Christ, to the resurrection of eternal life, both of soul
and body, through the incorruption [imparted] by the Holy Ghost. Among whom may I be
accepted this day before Thee as a fat and acceptable sacrifice, according as Thou, the
ever-truthful God, hast fore-ordained, hast revealed beforehand to me, and now hast
fulfilled. Wherefore also I praise Thee for all things, I bless Thee, I glorify Thee, along
with the everlasting and heavenly Jesus Christ, Thy beloved Son, with whom, to Thee, and
the Holy Ghost, be glory both now and to all coming ages. Amen."
CHAPTER XV -- POLYCARP IS NOT INJURED BY THE FIRE.
When he had pronounced this amen, and so finished his prayer, those who were appointed for
the purpose kindled the fire. And as the flame blazed forth in great fury, we, to whom it
was given to witness it, beheld a great miracle, and have been preserved that we might
report to others what then took place. For the fire, shaping itself into the form of an
arch, like the sail of a ship when filled with the wind, encompassed as by a circle the
body of the martyr. And he appeared within not like flesh which is burnt, but as bread that
is baked, or as gold and silver glowing in a furnace. Moreover, we perceived such a sweet
odour [coming from the pile], as if frankincense or some such precious spices had been
CHAPTER XVI -- POLYCARP IS PIERCED BY A DAGGER.
At length, when those wicked men perceived that his body could not be consumed by the fire,
they commanded an executioner to go near and pierce him through with a dagger. And on his
doing this, there came forth a dove, and a great quantity of blood, so that the fire was
extinguished; and all the people wondered that there should be such a difference between the
unbelievers and the elect, of whom this most admirable Polycarp was one, having in our own
times been an apostolic and prophetic teacher, and bishop of the Catholic Church which is in
Smyrna. For every word that went out of his mouth either has been or shall yet be accomplished.
CHAPTER XVII -- THE CHRISTIANS ARE REFUSED POLYCARP'S BODY.
But when the adversary of the race of the righteous, the envious, malicious, and wicked
one, perceived the impressive nature of his martyrdom, and [considered] the blameless life
he had led from the beginning, and how he was now crowned with the wreath of immortality,
having beyond dispute received his reward, he did his utmost that not the least memorial of
him should be taken away by us, although many desired to do this, and to become possessors
of his holy flesh. For this end he suggested it to Nicetes, the father of Herod and brother
of Alce, to go and entreat the governor not to give up his body to be buried, "lest," said
he, "forsaking Him that was crucified, they begin to worship this one." This he said at the
suggestion and urgent persuasion of the Jews, who also watched us, as we sought to take him
out of the fire, being ignorant of this, that it is neither possible for us ever to forsake
Christ, who suffered for the salvation of such as shall be saved throughout the whole world
(the blameless one for sinners), nor to worship any other. For Him indeed, as being the Son
of God, we adore; but the martyrs, as disciples and followers of the Lord, we worthily love
on account of their extraordinary affection towards their own King and Master, of whom may
we also be made companions and fellow-disciples!
CHAPTER XVIII -- THE BODY OF POLYCARP IS BURNED.
The centurion then, seeing the strife excited by the Jews, placed the body in the midst of
the fire, and consumed it. Accordingly, we afterwards took up his bones, as being more
precious than the most exquisite jewels, and more purified than gold, and deposited them in
a fitting place, whither, being gathered together, as opportunity is allowed us, with joy
and rejoicing, the Lord shall grant us to celebrate the anniversary of his martyrdom, both
in memory of those who have already finished their course, and for the exercising and
preparation of those yet to walk in their steps.
CHAPTER XIX -- PRAISE OF THE MARTYR POLYCARP.
This, then, is the account of the blessed Polycarp, who, being the twelfth that was
martyred in Smyrna (reckoning those also of Philadelphia), yet occupies a place of his own
in the memory of all men, insomuch that he is everywhere spoken of by the heathen themselves.
He was not merely an illustrious teacher, but also a pre-eminent martyr, whose martyrdom
all desire to imitate, as having been altogether consistent with the Gospel of Christ. For,
having through patience overcome the unjust governor, and thus acquired the crown of
immortality, he now, with the apostles and all the righteous[in heaven], rejoicingly
glorifies God, even the Father, and blesses our Lord Jesus Christ, the Saviour of our souls,
the Governor of our bodies, and the Shepherd of the Catholic Church throughout the world.
CHAPTER XX -- THIS EPISTLE IS TO BE TRANSMITTED TO THE BRETHREN.
Since, then, ye requested that we would at large make you acquainted with what really took
place, we have for the present sent you this summary account through our brother Marcus.
When, therefore, ye have yourselves read this Epistle, be pleased to send it to the brethren
at a greater distance, that they also may glorify the Lord, who makes such choice of His
own servants. To Him who is able to bring us all by His grace and goodness into his everlasting
kingdom, through His only-begotten Son Jesus Christ, to Him be glory, and honour, and power,
and majesty, for ever. Amen. Salute all the saints. They that are with us salute you, and
Evarestus, who wrote this Epistle, with all his house.
CHAPTER XXI -- THE DATE OF THE MARTYRDOM.
Now, the blessed Polycarp suffered martyrdom on the second day of the month Xanthicus just
begun, the seventh day before the Kalends of May, on the great Sabbath, at the eighth hour.
He was taken by Herod, Philip the Trallian being high priest, Statius Quadratus being
proconsul, but Jesus Christ being King for ever, to whom be glory, honour, majesty, and an
everlasting throne, from generation to generation. Amen.
CHAPTER XXII -- SALUTATION.
We wish you, brethren, all happiness, while you walk according to the doctrine of the Gospel
of Jesus Christ; with whom be glory to God the Father and the Holy Spirit, for the salvation
of His holy elect, after whose example the blessed Polycarp suffered, following in whose
steins may we too be found in the kingdom of Jesus Christ!
These things Caius transcribed from the copy of Irenaeus (who was a disciple of Polycarp),
having himself been intimate with Irenaeus. And I Socrates transcribed them at Corinth from
the copy of Caius. Grace be with you all.
And I again, Pionius, wrote them from the previously written copy, having carefully searched
into them, and the blessed Polycarp having manifested them to me through a revelation, even
as I shall show in what follows. I have collected these things, when they had almost faded
away through the lapse of time, that the Lord Jesus Christ may also gather me along with His
elect into His heavenly kingdom, to whom, with the Father and the Holy Spirit, be glory
forever and ever. Amen.