The Association of the New Covenant to the Mosaic Covenant

To understand the significance of the New Covenant, one must know about the Old Covenant. The Mosaic Covenant is often understood in the context of sacrifices - specific animals were prepared and sacrificed for certain sins by certain people to meet God's prescribed judicial process of atonement. However, the Law is much more than just sacrifices, and without understanding the Mosaic Covenant, one would not understand Jesus Christ's death and the New Covenant.

1. The Mosaic Covenant details the Day of Atonement. Occurring only once a year, this solemn day required the sacrifice of a 1) bull (its lifeblood) to atone for the sins of the high priest and his household, and 2) male goat (its lifeblood) to atone for the sins of the nation (Lev 16:2-19). On this one day of the year, only the high priest can enter the Holy of Holies to make atonement for himself and the nation of Israel for all their sins (Lev 16:34).

What does the prophet Isaiah of the Old Testament say about the Messiah (Isa 53:1-12)?

What does the New Testament authors say about the crucifixion of Jesus Christ (2 Cor 5:21; 1 Pet 2:22-24; 3:18; Heb 9:24-26)?

2. Located within the Holy of Holies is the Ark of the Covenant, which has a lid called the Mercy Seat and where God comes once a year. The high priest applies the blood of the sacrifice on the Mercy Seat to expiate (cover) the sins of himself and the nation to propitiate (appease) God.

What do New Testament authors say about Jesus Christ in relation to the Mercy Seat (Rom 3:25; Heb 9:12-14; 1 John 2:2; 4:10)?

3. The Mosaic Covenant included laws on religious festivals such as Passover (Lev 23:5-8; Ex 12:1-13, 42-51). This event, the last plague that struck the first born of Egypt but spared those Israelites who smeared the blood of a sacrificed unblemished lamb on their doorposts, would represent the Exodus.

What do New Testament authors say about Jesus Christ in relation to Passover (1 Cor 5:7; 1 Pet 1:19; Rev 5:6; John 1:29; Mark 14:12)?

4. The Mosaic Law established the Tabernacle as the house of God and, patterned after the heavenly model, provided precise instructions on how to construct it (Ex 25:8-9; Heb 8:1-5). Known as the "tent of meeting," the tabernacle was recognized as the meeting place between God and the His people (Ex 40:34-35); however, in practice, God met with only the High Priest in the Holy of Holies once a year on the Day of Atonement (Heb 9:7). When Solomon's Temple was built, the Holy of Holies had the dimensions of a cube: 30 feet x 30 feet x 30 feet (1 Kings 6:20).

What is the geometry of New Jerusalem in Revelation (Rev 21:15-16)? Describe the Temple in New Jerusalem (Rev 21:22-25).

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