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Index of Doctrinal Points
The Fifth Commandment.
Thou shalt not kill.
What does this mean?
Answer: We should fear and love God that we may not hurt nor harm our neighbor in his body, but help
and befriend him in every bodily need [in every need and danger of life and body].
The Fifth Commandment. (Details from the Large Catechism)
Thou shalt not kill.
We have now completed both the spiritual and the temporal government, that is, the divine and
the paternal authority and obedience. But here now we go forth from our house among our neighbors
to learn how we should live with one another, every one himself toward his neighbor. Therefore God
and government are not included in this commandment nor is the power to kill, which they have taken
away. For God has delegated His authority to punish evil-doers to the government instead of parents,
who aforetime (as we read in Moses) were required to bring their own children to judgment and sentence
them to death. Therefore, what is here forbidden is forbidden to the individual in his relation to
any one else, and not to the government.
Now this commandment is easy enough and has been often treated, because we hear it annually in
the Gospel of St. Matthew, 5:21 ff., where Christ Himself explains and sums it up, namely, that we
must not kill neither with hand, heart, mouth, signs, gestures, help, nor counsel. Therefore it is
here forbidden to every one to be angry, except those (as we said) who are in the place of God, that
is, parents and the government. For it is proper for God and for every one who is in a divine estate
to be angry, to reprove and punish, namely, on account of those very persons who transgress this and
the other commandments.
But the cause and need of this commandment is that God well knows that the world is evil, and that
this life has much unhappiness; therefore He has placed this and the other commandments between the
good and the evil. Now, as there are many assaults upon all commandments, so it happens also in this
commandment that we must live among many people who do us harm, so that we have cause to be hostile
As when your neighbor sees that you have a better house and home [a larger family and more fertile
fields], greater possessions and fortune from God than he, he is sulky, envies you, and speaks no
good of you.
Thus by the devil's incitement you will get many enemies who cannot bear to see you have any good,
either bodily or spiritual. When we see such people, our hearts, in turn, would rage and bleed and
take vengeance. Then there arise cursing and blows, from which follow finally misery and murder. Here,
now, God like a kind father steps in ahead of Us, interposes and wishes to have the quarrel settled,
that no misfortune come of it, nor one destroy another. And briefly He would hereby protect, set free,
and keep in peace every one against the crime and violence of every one else; and would have this
commandment placed as a wall, fortress, and refuge about our neighbor, that we do him no hurt nor
harm in his body.
Thus this commandment aims at this, that no one offend his neighbor on account of any evil deed,
even though he have fully deserved it. For where murder is forbidden, all cause also is forbidden
whence murder may originate. For many a one, although he does not kill, yet curses and utters a wish,
which would stop a person from running far if it were to strike him in the neck [makes imprecations,
which if fulfilled with respect to any one, he would not live long]. Now since this inheres in every
one by nature and it is a common practice that no one is willing to suffer at the hands of another,
God wishes to remove the root and source by which the heart is embittered against our neighbor, and
to accustom us ever to keep in view this commandment, always to contemplate ourselves in it as in a
mirror, to regard the will of God, and with hearty confidence and invocation of His name to commit
to Him the wrong which we suffer. Thus we shall suffer our enemies to rage and be angry, doing what
they can, and we learn to calm our wrath, and to have a patient, gentle heart, especially toward
those who give us cause to be angry, that is, our enemies.
Therefore the entire sum of what it means not to kill is to be impressed most explicitly upon the
simple-minded. In the first place that we harm no one, first, with our hand or by deed. Then, that
we do not employ our tongue to instigate or counsel thereto. Further, that we neither use nor assent
to any kind of means or methods whereby any one may be injured. And finally, that the heart be not
ill disposed toward any one, nor from anger and hatred wish him ill, so that body and soul may be
innocent in regard to every one, but especially those who wish you evil or inflict such upon you.
For to do evil to one who wishes and does you good is not human, but diabolical.
Secondly, under this commandment not only he is guilty who does evil to his neighbor, but he also
who can do him good, prevent, resist evil, defend and save him, so that no bodily harm or hurt happen
to him and yet does not do it. If, therefore, you send away one that is naked when you could clothe
him, you have caused him to freeze to death; you see one suffer hunger and do not give him food, you
have caused him to starve. So also, if you see any one innocently sentenced to death or in like distress,
and do not save him, although you know ways and means to do so, you have killed him. And it will not
avail you to make the pretext that you did not afford any help, counsel, or aid thereto for you have
withheld your love from him and deprived him of the benefit whereby his life would have been saved.
Therefore God also rightly calls all those murderers who do not afford counsel and help in distress
and danger of body and life, and will pass a most terrible sentence upon them in the last day, as
Christ Himself has announced when He shall say, Matt. 25:42f.: I was an hungered, and ye gave Me no
meat; I was thirsty, and ye gave Me no drink; I was a stranger, and ye took Me not in; naked, and ye
clothed Me not; sick and in prison and ye visited Me not. That is: You would have suffered Me and
Mine to die of hunger thirst, and cold, would have suffered the wild beasts to tear us to pieces,
or left us to rot in prison or perish in distress. What else is that but to reproach them as murderers
and bloodhounds? For although you have not actually done all this, you have nevertheless, so far as
you were concerned, suffered him to pine and perish in misfortune.
It is just as if I saw some one navigating and laboring in deep water [and struggling against
adverse winds] or one fallen into fire, and could extend to him the hand to pull him out and save
him, and yet refused to do it. What else would I appear, even in the eyes of the world, than as a
murderer and a criminal?
Therefore it is God's ultimate purpose that we suffer harm to befall no man, but show him all good
and love; and, as we have said it is specially directed toward those who are our enemies. For to do
good to our friends is but an ordinary heathen virtue as Christ says Matt. 5:46.
Here we have again the Word of God whereby He would encourage and urge us to true noble and sublime
works, as gentleness patience, and, in short, love and kindness to our enemies, and would ever remind
us to reflect upon the First Commandment, that He is our God, that is, that He will help, assist,
and protect us, in order that He may thus quench the desire of revenge in us.
This we ought to practice and inculcate and we would have our hands full doing good works. But
this would not be preaching for monks; it would greatly detract from the religious estate, and infringe
upon the sanctity of Carthusians, and would even be regarded as forbidding good works and clearing
the convents. For in this wise the ordinary state of Christians would be considered just as worthy,
and even worthier, and everybody would see how they mock and delude the world with a false, hypocritical
show of holiness, because they have given this and other commandments to the winds, and have esteemed
them unnecessary, as though they were not commandments but mere counsels, and have at the same time
shamelessly proclaimed and boasted their hypocritical estate and works as the most perfect life,
in order that they might lead a pleasant, easy life, without the cross and without patience, for
which reason, too, they have resorted to the cloisters, so that they might not be obliged to suffer
any wrong from any one or to do him any good. But know now that these are the true, holy, and godly
works, in which, with all the angels He rejoices, in comparison with which all human holiness is but
stench and filth, and besides, deserves nothing but wrath and damnation.
The Sixth Commandment.
Thou shalt not commit adultery.
What does this mean?
Answer: We should fear and love God that we may lead a chaste and decent life in words and deeds,
and each love and honor his spouse.
The Sixth Commandment. (Details from the Large Catechism)
Thou shalt not commit adultery.
These commandments now [that follow] are easily understood from [the explanation of] the preceding;
for they are all to the effect that we [be careful to] avoid doing any kind of injury to our neighbor.
But they are arranged in fine [elegant] order. In the first place, they treat of his own person. Then
they proceed to the person nearest him, or the closest possession next after his body namely, his wife,
who is one flesh and blood with him, so that we cannot inflict a higher injury upon him in any good
that is his. Therefore it is explicitly forbidden here to bring any disgrace upon him in respect to
his wife. And it really aims at adultery, because among the Jews it was ordained and commanded that
every one must be married. Therefore also the young were early provided for [married], so that the
virgin state was held in small esteem, neither were public prostitution and lewdness tolerated (as
now). Therefore adultery was the most common form of unchastity among them.
But because among us there is such a shameful mess and the very dregs of all vice and lewdness,
this commandment is directed also against all manner of unchastity, whatever it may be called; and
not only is the external act forbidden, but also every kind of cause, incitement, and means, so that
the heart, the lips, and the whole body may be chaste and afford no opportunity, help, or persuasion
to unchastity. And not only this, but that we also make resistance, afford protection and rescue wherever
there is danger and need; and again, that we give help and counsel, so as to maintain our neighbor's
honor. For whenever you omit this when you could make resistance, or connive at it as if it did not
concern you, you are as truly guilty as the one perpetrating the deed. Thus, to state it in the briefest
manner, there is required this much, that every one both live chastely himself and help his neighbor
do the same, so that God by this commandment wishes to hedge round about and protect [as with a rampart]
every spouse that no one trespass against them.
But since this commandment is aimed directly at the state of matrimony and gives occasion to speak
of the same, you must well understand and mark, first, how gloriously God honors and extols this estate,
inasmuch as by His commandment He both sanctions and guards it. He has sanctioned it above in the Fourth
Commandment: Honor thy father and thy mother; but here He has (as we said ) hedged it about and protected
it. Therefore He also wishes us to honor it, and to maintain and conduct it as a divine and blessed
estate; because, in the first place, He has instituted it before all others, and therefore created
man and woman separately (as is evident), not for lewdness, but that they should [legitimately] live
together, be fruitful, beget children, and nourish and train them to the honor of God.
Therefore God has also most richly blessed this estate above all others, and, in addition, has
bestowed on it and wrapped up in it everything in the world, to the end that this estate might be
well and richly provided for. Married life is therefore no jest or presumption; but it is an excellent
thing and a matter of divine seriousness. For it is of the highest importance to Him that persons be
raised who may serve the world and promote the knowledge of God, godly living, and all virtues, to
fight against wickedness and the devil.
Therefore I have always taught that this estate should not be despised nor held in disrepute, as
is done by the blind world and our false ecclesiastics, but that it be regarded according to God's
Word, by which it is adorned and sanctified, so that it is not only placed on an equality with other
estates, but that it precedes and surpasses them all, whether they be that of emperor, princes, bishops,
or whoever they please. For both ecclesiastical and civil estates must humble themselves and all be
found in this estate as we shall hear. Therefore it is not a peculiar estate, but the most common and
noblest estate, which pervades all Christendom, yea which extends through all the world.
In the second place, you must know also that it is not only an honorable, but also a necessary state,
and it is solemnly commanded by God that, in general, in all conditions, men and women, who were created
for it, shall be found in this estate; yet with some exceptions (although few) whom God has especially
excepted, so that they are not fit for the married estate, or whom He has released by a high, supernatural
gift that they can maintain chastity without this estate. For where nature has its course, as it is
implanted by God, it is not possible to remain chaste without marriage. For flesh and blood remain flesh
and blood, and the natural inclination and excitement have their course without let or hindrance, as
everybody sees and feels. In order, therefore, that it may be the more easy in some degree to avoid
unchastity, God has commanded the estate of matrimony, that every one may have his proper portion and
be satisfied therewith; although God's grace besides is required in order that the heart also may be pure.
From this you see how this popish rabble, priests, monks, and nuns, resist God's order and commandment,
inasmuch as they despise and forbid matrimony, and presume and vow to maintain perpetual chastity,
and, besides, deceive the simple-minded with lying words and appearances [impostures]. For no one has
so little love and inclination to chastity as just those who because of great sanctity avoid marriage,
and either indulge in open and shameless prostitution, or secretly do even worse, so that one dare not
speak of it, as has, alas! been learned too fully. And, in short, even though they abstain from the
act, their hearts are so full of unchaste thoughts and evil lusts that there is a continual burning
and secret suffering, which can be avoided in the married life. Therefore all vows of chastity out of
the married state are condemned by this commandment, and free permission is granted, yea, even the
command is given, to all poor ensnared consciences which have been deceived by their monastic vows
to abandon the unchaste state and enter the married life, considering that even if the monastic life
were godly, it would nevertheless not be in their power to maintain chastity, and if they remain in
it, they must only sin more and more against this commandment.
Now, I speak of this in order that the young may be so guided that they conceive a liking for
the married estate, and know that it is a blessed estate and pleasing to God. For in this way we
might in the course of time bring it about that married life be restored to honor, and that there
might be less of the filthy, dissolute, disorderly doings which now run riot the world over in open
prostitution and other shameful vices arising from disregard of married life. Therefore it is the
duty of parents and the government to see to it that our youth be brought up to discipline and respectability,
and when they have come to years of maturity, to provide for them [to have them married] in the fear
of God and honorably; He would not fail to add His blessing and grace, so that men would have joy
and happiness from the same.
Let me now say in conclusion that this commandment demands not only that every one live chastely
in thought, word, and deed in his condition, that is, especially in the estate of matrimony, but also
that every one love and esteem the spouse given him by God. For where conjugal chastity is to be
maintained, man and wife must by all means live together in love and harmony, that one may cherish
the other from the heart and with entire fidelity. For that is one of the principal points which enkindle
love and desire of chastity, so that, where this is found, chastity will follow as a matter of course
without any command. Therefore also St. Paul so diligently exhorts husband and wife to love and honor
one another. Here you have again a precious, yea, many and great good works, of which you can joyfully
boast, against all ecclesiastical estates, chosen without God's Word and commandment.
The Seventh Commandment.
Thou shalt not steal.
What does this mean?
Answer: We should fear and love God that we may not take our neighbor's money or property, nor get
them by false ware or dealing, but help him to improve and protect his property and business [that
his means are preserved and his condition is improved].
The Seventh Commandment. (Details from the Large Catechism)
Thou shalt not steal.
After your person and spouse temporal property comes next. That also God wishes to have protected,
and He has commanded that no one shall subtract from, or curtail, his neighbor's possessions. For to
steal is nothing else than to get possession of another's property wrongfully, which briefly comprehends
all kinds of advantage in all sorts of trade to the disadvantage of our neighbor. Now, this is indeed
quite a wide-spread and common vice, but so little regarded and observed that it exceeds all measure,
so that if all who are thieves, and yet do not wish to be called such, were to be hanged on gallows
the world would soon be devastated and there would be a lack both of executioners and gallows. For,
as we have just said, to steal is to signify not only to empty our neighbor's coffer and pockets, but
to be grasping in the market, in all stores, booths, wine- and beer-cellars, workshops, and, in short,
wherever there is trading or taking and giving of money for merchandise or labor.
As, for instance, to explain this somewhat grossly for the common people, that it may be seen how
godly we are: When a manservant or maid-servant does not serve faithfully in the house, and does damage,
or allows it to be done when it could be prevented, or otherwise ruins and neglects the goods entrusted
to him, from indolence idleness, or malice, to the spite and vexation of master and mistress, and in
whatever way this can be done purposely (for I do not speak of what happens from oversight and against
one's will), you can in a year abscond thirty, forty florins, which if another had taken secretly or
carried away, he would be hanged with the rope. But here you [while conscious of such a great theft]
may even bid defiance and become insolent, and no one dare call you a thief.
The same I say also of mechanics, workmen, and day-laborers, who all follow their wanton notions,
and never know enough ways to overcharge people, while they are lazy and unfaithful in their work.
All these are far worse than sneak-thieves, against whom we can guard with locks and bolts, or who,
if apprehended, are treated in such a manner that they will not do the same again. But against these
no one can guard, no one dare even look awry at them or accuse them of theft, so that one would ten
times rather lose from his purse. For here are my neighbors, good friends, my own servants, from whom
I expect good [every faithful and diligent service], who defraud me first of all.
Furthermore, in the market and in common trade likewise, this practice is in full swing and force
to the greatest extent, where one openly defrauds another with bad merchandise, false measures, weights,
coins, and by nimbleness and queer finances or dexterous tricks takes advantage of him; likewise,
when one overcharges a person in a trade and wantonly drives a hard bargain, skins and distresses him.
And who can recount or think of all these things? To sum up, this is the commonest craft and the largest
guild on earth, and if we regard the world throughout all conditions of life, it is nothing else than
a vast, wide stall, full of great thieves.
Therefore they are also called swivel-chair robbers, land- and highway-robbers, not pick-locks
and sneak-thieves who snatch away the ready cash, but who sit on the chair [at home] and are styled
great noblemen, and honorable, pious citizens, and yet rob and steal under a good pretext.
Yes, here we might be silent about the trifling individual thieves if we were to attack the great,
powerful arch-thieves with whom lords and princes keep company, who daily plunder not only a city or
two, but all Germany. Yea, where should we place the head and supreme protector of all thieves, the
Holy Chair at Rome with all its retinue, which has grabbed by theft the wealth of all the world, and
holds it to this day?
This is, in short, the course of the world: whoever can steal and rob openly goes free and secure,
unmolested by any one, and even demands that he be honored. Meanwhile the little sneak-thieves, who
have once trespassed, must bear the shame and punishment to render the former godly and honorable.
But let them know that in the sight of God they are the greatest thieves, and that He will punish
them as they are worthy and deserve.
Now, since this commandment is so far-reaching [and comprehensive], as just indicated, it is
necessary to urge it well and to explain it to the common people, not to let them go on in their
wantonness and security, but always to place before their eyes the wrath of God, and inculcate the
same. For we have to preach this not to Christians, but chiefly to knaves and scoundrels, to whom
it would be more fitting for judges, jailers, or Master Hannes [the executioner] to preach. Therefore
let every one know that it is his duty, at the risk of God's displeasure, not only to do no injury
to his neighbor, nor to deprive him of gain, nor to perpetrate any act of unfaithfulness or malice
in any bargain or trade, but faithfully to preserve his property for him, to secure and promote his
advantage, especially when one accepts money, wages, and one's livelihood for such service.
He now who wantonly despises this may indeed pass along and escape the hangman, but he shall not
escape the wrath and punishment of God; and when he has long practiced his defiance and arrogance,
he shall yet remain a tramp and beggar, and, in addition, have all plagues and misfortune. Now you
are going your way [wherever your heart's pleasure calls you] while you ought to preserve the property
of your master and mistress, for which service you fill your crop and maw, take your wages like a
thief, have people treat you as a nobleman; for there are many that are even insolent towards their
masters and mistresses, and are unwilling to do them a favor or service by which to protect them
But reflect what you will gain when, having come into your own property and being set up in your
home (to which God will help with all misfortunes), it [your perfidy] will bob up again and come home
to you, and you will find that where you have cheated or done injury to the value of one mite, you
will have to pay thirty again.
Such shall be the lot also of mechanics and day-laborers of whom we are now obliged to hear and
suffer such intolerable maliciousness, as though they were noblemen in another's possessions, and
every one were obliged to give them what they demand. Just let them continue practicing their exactions
as long as they can; but God will not forget His commandment, and will reward them according as they
have served, and will hang them, not upon a green gallows, but upon a dry one so that all their life
they shall neither prosper nor accumulate anything. And indeed, if there were a well-ordered government
in the land, such wantonness might soon be checked and prevented, as was the custom in ancient times
among the Romans, where such characters were promptly seized by the pate in a way that others took warning.
No more shall all the rest prosper who change the open free market into a carrion-pit of extortion
and a den of robbery, where the poor are daily overcharged, new burdens and high prices are imposed,
and every one uses the market according to his caprice, and is even defiant and brags as though it
were his fair privilege and right to sell his goods for as high a price as he please, and no one
had a right to say a word against it. We will indeed look on and let these people skin, pinch, and
hoard, but we will trust in God -- who will, however, do this of His own accord, -- that, after you
have been skinning and scraping for a long time, He will pronounce such a blessing on your gains
that your grain in the garner, your beer in the cellar, your cattle in the stalls shall perish; yea,
where you have cheated and overcharged any one to the amount of a florin, your entire pile shall be
consumed with rust, so that you shall never enjoy it.
And indeed, we see and experience this being fulfilled daily before our eyes, that no stolen or
dishonestly acquired possession thrives. How many there are who rake and scrape day and night, and
yet grow not a farthing richer! And though they gather much, they must suffer so many plagues and
misfortunes that they cannot relish it with cheerfulness nor transmit it to their children. But as
no one minds it, and we go on as though it did not concern us, God must visit us in a different way
and teach us manners by imposing one taxation after another, or billeting a troop of soldiers upon
us, who in one hour empty our coffers and purses, and do not quit as long as we have a farthing left,
and in addition, by way of thanks, burn and devastate house and home, and outrage and kill wife and children.
And, in short, if you steal much, depend upon it that again as much will be stolen from you; and
he who robs and acquires with violence and wrong will submit to one who shall deal after the same
fashion with him. For God is master of this art, that since every one robs and steals from the other,
He punishes one thief by means of another. Else where should we find enough gallows and ropes?
Now, whoever is willing to be instructed let him know that this is the commandment of God, and that
it must not be treated as a jest. For although you despise us, defraud, steal, and rob, we will indeed
manage to endure your haughtiness, suffer, and, according to the Lord's Prayer, forgive and show pity;
for we know that the godly shall nevertheless have enough, and you injure yourself more than another.
But beware of this: When the poor man comes to you (of whom there are so many now) who must buy
with the penny of his daily wages and live upon it, and you are harsh to him, as though every one
lived by your favor, and you skin and scrape to the bone, and, besides, with pride and haughtiness
turn him off to whom you ought to give for nothing, he will go away wretched and sorrowful, and since
he can complain to no one he will cry and call to heaven, -- then beware (I say again) as of the devil
himself. For such groaning and calling will be no jest, but will have a weight that will prove too
heavy for you and all the world. For it will reach Him who takes care of the poor sorrowful hearts,
and will not allow them to go unavenged. But if you despise this and become defiant, see whom you have
brought upon you: if you succeed and prosper, you may before all the world call God and me a liar.
We have exhorted, warned, and protested enough; he who will not heed or believe it may go on until
he learns this by experience Yet it must be impressed upon the young that they may be careful not to
follow the old lawless crowd, but keep their eyes fixed upon God's commandment, lest His wrath and
punishment come upon them too. It behooves us to do no more than to instruct and reprove with God's
Word; but to check such open wantonness there is need of the princes and government, who themselves
would have eyes and the courage to establish and maintain order in all manner of trade and commerce,
lest the poor be burdened and oppressed nor they themselves be loaded with other men's sins.
Let this suffice as an explanation of what stealing is, that it be not taken too narrowly but made
to extend as far as we have to do with our neighbors. And briefly, in a summary, as in the former
commandments, it is herewith forbidden, in the first place, to do our neighbor any injury or wrong
(in whatever manner supposable, by curtailing, forestalling, and withholding his possessions and property),
or even to consent or allow such a thing, but to interpose and prevent it. And, on the other hand, it
is commanded that we advance and improve his possessions, and in case he suffers want, that we help,
communicate, and lend both to friends and foes.
Whoever now seeks and desires good works will find here more than enough such as are heartily
acceptable and pleasing to God, and in addition are favored and crowned with excellent blessings,
that we are to be richly compensated for all that we do for our neighbor's good and from friendship;
as King Solomon also teaches Prov. 19:17: He that hath pity upon the poor lendeth unto the Lord; and
that which he hath given will He pay him again. Here, then you have a rich Lord, who is certainly
sufficient for you, and who will not suffer you to come short in anything or to want; thus you can
with a joyful conscience enjoy a hundred times more than you could scrape together with unfaithfulness
and wrong. Now, whoever does not desire the blessing will find wrath and misfortune enough.