A Series on the Old Testament Believer
John 6:44 is usually emphasized against the understanding that human beings
have the ability to choose a saving faith in Jesus Christ.
No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him; and I will raise him up on the last day.
This view makes two presumptions: 1) Jesus is speaking of all non-Believers who will receive salvation, and 2)
a literal interpretation of the word "draw;" in which human beings are so depraved that God must drag one to Jesus in order to be
saved; it is God who initiates a faith that saves. But, when one takes this view, he is left with the conundrum of explaining how
God does this; there aren't any passages in the Bible that explain how God "drags" one to or gives faith.
In a later passage, when a bewildered crowd hears the voice of God from heaven, Jesus explains the purpose of God's message and
predicts His death.
And I, if I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all men to Myself.
Here Jesus indicates that after His death, which inaugurates the New Covenant, He will draw all men to Himself.
If, from His time of death, Jesus draws both non-Believers and Old Testament Believers to Himself, then it would seem that the
interpretation of John 6:44, that God draws non-Believers to Jesus today, is
With this understanding, John 6:44 poses an interpretive problem, and the
presumptions that underpin the view that God draws one to Jesus need to be re-examined – that a) Jesus is of all non-Believers who
will receive salvation, and b) using the word "draw" in the literal sense.
For centuries, many notable theologians have presumed that Jesus is speaking of non-Believers when He responds
to the grumbling Jews in John 6:44. That Jesus says that He draws all men after
His crucifixion in John 12:32 is almost universally ignored.
Another notable observation that is usually missed is that John 6:44
is part of a chiasm (John 6:35-51), which provides clarity to the passage. When
examining the chiasm of John 6:35-51, it becomes apparent that Jesus is contrasting
two sets of people: the non-Believing Jews and the Believing Jews (genuine Old Testament Believers).
Because the New Covenant has not been ratified with His sacrifice of atonement, Jesus' statement of "no one can
come to Him unless the Father draws" is operating under the Mosaic Covenant, which is consistent with the distinction of Jews being
made in the chiasm. See the article "The Bread of Life Chiasm in John 6:35-51."
Examining the chiasm further, "all that the Father gives Me"
(John 6:37, 39) and "everyone who has heard and learned from the Father, comes
to me" (John 6:45) are references to genuine Believers under the Mosaic Covenant,
God's holy people and His own possession (Ex 19:5;
Deut 7:6; Mal 3:16-18). Of all
of the Jews, only those who are genuine Believers in God, are drawn to Jesus. This offended many, because Jesus was perceived as a
military Savior from Roman rule, which resulted in the desertion of many disciples
This view provides a better understanding of Jesus' answer to the Canaanite woman, "I was sent only to the lost
sheep of the house of Israel" (Matt 15:24).
This fascinating periscope is examined in the article
"The Canaanite Woman and the Lost Sheep of Israel.
Within the context of the first century, Jesus used "sheep" to figuratively refer to Old Testament Believers, those
who had a genuine faith in God and were faithful to the Mosaic covenant, as He ministered in the Temple, synagogues, and Jewish
gathering places. This is apparent when Jesus is speaking to the Pharisees.
I am the good shepherd, and I know My own and My own know Me, even as the Father knows Me and I know the
Father; and I lay down My life for the sheep. I have other sheep, which are not of this fold; I must bring them also, and they will
hear My voice; and they will become one flock with one shepherd. (John 10:14-16, etc.).
The Jews then gathered around Him, and were saying to Him, "How long will You keep us in suspense? If You
are the Christ, tell us plainly." Jesus answered them, "I told you, and you do not believe; the works that I do in My Father's name,
these testify of Me. But you do not believe because you are not of My sheep. My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow
Me; and I give eternal life to them, and they will never perish; and no one will snatch them out of My hand. My Father, who has given
them to Me, is greater than all; and no one is able to snatch them out of the Father's hand. I and the Father are one."
(John 10:24-30, etc.).
It is when speaking in the context of the eschatological future that Jesus uses "sheep" to figuratively refer to
all Believers including New Testament Believers of today (Matt 25:31-33).
It is important to note that John 6:44 is a rebuke exclusively
directed towards the disbelieving Jews who were the recipients of divine covenants and stewards of the word of God. The means of
God's drawing, faithful knowledge of God's word, identified who the Messiah was, which was the stumbling block for the Jews.
The shepherds were visited by angels and informed of the birth of Jesus
(Luke 2:8-14). Apparently aware of Messianic prophecies, they listened to
the angels and wanted to see the baby Savior and praised God (Luke 2:15-20).
Simeon, knowledgeable and obedient to God's word, was looking for the Messiah and listened to the Holy Spirit
who showed him the baby Jesus (Luke 2:25-32). Around that same time, the prophetess
Anna, presumably receiving an indication from God, knows that the baby Jesus is the Savior
The early disciples, aware of the Messianic prophecies of the Old Testament and the testimony of John the Baptist,
recognized the Messiah when they met Him. And John the Baptist knew Jesus was the Messiah, because he listened to God
As a contrast, there were a few genuine Believers of God who, merely hearing of His supernatural acts fulfilled
Messianic prophecies, recognized that Jesus was the Messiah and Son of God.
The Centurion who, because he loved God's people and paid for the building of a new synagogue, demonstrated that
he was an Old Testament Believer. Hearing of Jesus' divine ability to heal, the Centurion recognized Jesus' authority and his
unworthiness of being in the presence of the Messiah. Jesus lauded this Gentile Believer for his faith
The woman, who suffered from chronic bleeding, heard of Jesus' ability to heal and believed without a doubt that
merely touching the Messiah would heal. Jesus' recognized and commended her for her faith in Him
As a side note, while Jesus "was sent for the lost sheep of the house of Israel," His mission was not limited to
OT Believers. There were non-Believing Gentiles who witnessed miracles that only God could do, which caused them to believe Jesus'
claim of Messiah.
After seeing Jesus' omniscience, the Samaritan woman, so convinced that Jesus was the Messiah, evangelized to
her home city (John 4:7-42).
After seeing his son healed, the royal official evangelized to his whole household
With Jesus' arrival on earth, John 6:44 indicates the
transition of a Believer under the Law to a Believer under the soon to be inaugurated New Covenant. This is seen in the historical
events that follow.
As early as three years within His crucifixion, the account of Jesus' death and resurrection and His gospel was
documented and being shared.
Well before the apostle Paul's death in 67 A.D., his epistles were being circulated. Significant in that his
work comprises roughly a quarter of the New Testament, the former Pharisee Paul is perhaps the most important interpreter of Jesus
A few decades after Jesus' death and resurrection, the Temple is destroyed (70 A.D.) and ends any possible
compliance to the Mosaic Covenant. Without any reconstruction of the Temple, no sacrifices of atonement can be conducted and so
ends the existence of the Old Testament Believer.
The natural meaning of John 12:32, that Jesus draws, makes sense when the
term "draw" is understood figuratively (in contrast to the literal view). To "draw" is not synonymous with salvation; rather, after
Jesus is "raised," it is to bring (attract) people to see that Jesus Christ's death and resurrection is a portrayal of both God's
and Jesus' agape love of mankind.
Throughout the New Testament, agape love is emphasized as the basis of moral behavior. Believers, indwelt with
the Spirit of Jesus (Acts 16:6-7; Phil 1:19;
1 Pet 1:11), represent the Jesus that both non-Believers and Old Testament
Believers see; it is agape love that attracts (the figurative meaning of draw) non-Believers to Jesus Christ.
God's agapē love:
For God so loved (agapaō) the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in
Him shall not perish, but have eternal life. For God did not send the Son into the world to judge the world, but that the world might
be saved through Him. He who believes in Him is not judged; he who does not believe has been judged already, because he has not
believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God. (John 3:16-18)
Jesus' agapē love:
Just as the Father has loved (agapaō) Me, I have also loved (agapaō)you; abide in My love
(agapē). If you keep My commandments, you will abide in My love (agapē); just as I have kept My Father's commandments
and abide in His love (agapē). These things I have spoken to you so that My joy may be in you, and that your joy may be made
full. This is My commandment, that you love (agapaō) one another, just as I have loved (agapaō) you. Greater love
(agapē) has no one than this, that one lay down his life for his friends. (John 15::9-13)
A disciple's agapē love:
And He said to him, "‘YOU SHALL LOVE (agapaō) THE LORD YOUR GOD WITH ALL YOUR HEART, AND WITH ALL
YOUR SOUL, AND WITH ALL YOUR MIND.' This is the great and foremost commandment. The second is like it, ‘YOU SHALL LOVE (agapaō)
YOUR NEIGHBOR AS YOURSELF.' On these two commandments depend the whole Law and the Prophets."
A new commandment I give to you, that you love (agapaō) one another, even as I have loved
(agapaō) you, that you also love (agapaō) one another. By this all men will know that you are My disciples, if you have
love (agapē) for one another. (John 13:34-35)
The means of drawing is the historical account of Jesus' death and resurrection, which legitimizes the gospel,
and there are several examples of how various instruments are used to bring people to hear this message.
Witnessing the Day of Pentecost, devout Jews of many nationalities (whether they were OT Believers or not)
listened to Peter's sermon on Jesus' death and resurrection and many came to faith in Jesus Christ
In similar manner, whether these Jews were genuine OT Believers or not, some 5,000 came to faith in Jesus Christ
after Peter's second sermon on Jesus' death and resurrection at an outer court of the Temple
(Acts 3:11 - 4:4).
The Ethiopia eunuch was reading the Old Testament and came to faith in God when Philip "preached Jesus to him."
Although Cornelius was a Gentile, he was likely an Old Testament Believer, because he and his family was devout,
feared God and prayed (Acts 10:1-48). It is in this context of a Believer that
Cornelius was "divinely directed" to send for Peter (Acts 10:22) who preaches
the gospel of Jesus Christ, and Cornelius and other Gentiles present come to faith and get baptized. It is this incident in which
the apostle Peter realizes that the Good News is also for the Gentiles.
The Gentiles at Pisidian Antioch presents an interesting case of conversion
(Acts 13:11-48). In this instance, the Bible states that "as many as had been
appointed believed," which suggests divine appointment (Acts 13:48). There are
several lines of evidence that supports the idea that these particular Gentiles believed in God and were considered Believers under
the Mosaic Covenant:
a) They met in the synagogue on the Sabbath and their number prompted the Jews to become jealous of the apostles
Paul and Barnabas (Acts 13:44-45).
b) One week earlier, the apostle Paul addressed the congregation as "Brethren, sons of Abraham's family and those
among you who fear God," and it was these people who begged both Paul and Barnabas to speak again at the next Sabbath
(Acts 13:26, 42-43).
c) When the covenant with Moses was made, there was never any mention of eternal life. Because of their genuine
faith under the Old Covenant, these believing Gentiles were appointed to eternal life as promised by Jesus Christ whose crucifixion
initiated the New Covenant.
Lydia, the Gentile seller of purple fabric, was a worshiper of God
According to Jewish law, a quorum of ten men was required to establish a synagogue. If a synagogue is not available,
a place of prayer on the Sabbath would be outside and near a body of water, which is why Paul searched for a place of prayer along
the river (Acts 16:13). Finding a group of women assembled testified to their
devotion to God.
Because of her faith, God enabled her to respond to the Good News that the apostle Paul was sharing
The apostle Paul would continue to preach the gospel with an emphasis on the death and resurrection of Jesus
So, King Agrippa, I did not prove disobedient to the heavenly vision, but kept declaring both to those
of Damascus first, and also at Jerusalem and then throughout all the region of Judea, and even to the Gentiles, that they should
repent and turn to God, performing deeds appropriate to repentance. For this reason some Jews seized me in the temple and tried
to put me to death. So, having obtained help from God, I stand to this day testifying both to small and great, stating nothing but
what the Prophets and Moses said was going to take place; that the Christ was to suffer, and that by reason of His resurrection
from the dead He would be the first to proclaim light both to the Jewish people and to the Gentiles."