1. Study 1 Timothy 2:8-9. What did Paul's letter
mean within the context of the 1st century and the prevailing culture?
Timothy was left with the responsibility of caring for the church of Ephesus in Turkey.
What a challenge! This port city for East and West trade was one of the richest cities in the world, in part
because this city was the location of the Asiatic goddess Artemis. Worshipped for hundreds of years since
approximately 800 BC by many cultures in Asia Minor, she was known by many names. In later years, she was
confused with and mistaken for the Greek mythology goddess Artemis (and later adopted and renamed by the Romans
as Diana) the daughter of Zeus and twin of Apollo.
The temple to the Asiatic goddess Artemis had been destroyed and rebuilt several times, but
its 6th temple was regarded as one of the Seven Greatest Wonders of the Ancient World. Pliny recorded the
dimensions of this temple as 425 feet in lengt, 225 feet in width, and the roof supported by 127 columns with
a height of 60 feet. In comparison, the Parthenon whose ruins are found in Athens Greece today was only 230 feet
in length, 100 feet in width, and had a roof supported by only 58 columns.
The Ephesian Asiatic goddess Artemis, whose patrons were prostitutes, was represented by a
garland consisting of three rows of bulbous shaped objects which have been interpreted as nipple less breasts,
eggs, or grapes which symbolized fertility and sexuality. Many ancient writers recorded the rampant immorality
of the time. Imagine what type of tourism that attracted!
2. Against this cultural context, what does 1 Timothy 2:8-9
"Likewise." Just as men are to conduct themselves in an organized and godly manner in the
assembly, women also have specific guidelines to follow.
"Modestly." The term here means to "be reserved in sexual matters." Given what the Christians
faced in Ephesus, this was in specific reference to clothing that was sexually enticing. Godly women do not dress
like those who worship the Ephesian goddess Artemis and they should not be confused with prostitutes.
"Discretely." This too was in reference to a sexual perspective. The term means "self-control
or sobriety." In other words, it's not just the clothes you wear but how you wear them.
"Braided hair." Fritz Rienecker (*1) informs us, "Both Jewish and Gentile women were noted for
their elaborate hairstyles. In Philo's description of pleasure coming in the guise of a prostitute, he describes
such a woman as having her hair dressed in curious and elaborate plaits, her eyes with pencil lines, her eyebrows
smothered with paint, and her costly raiment broided lavishly with flowers, and with bracelets, necklaces of gold
and jewels hanging around her."
"Pearls." Pearls (1), at that time, were three times the
value of gold. The pearls were used to dress up the hair, fingers, earrings, garments, and sandals.
"Costly garments." Paul grew up in Tarsus, which was one of the finest centers for woven
garments in the ancient world. Some garments could cost as much as 7000 denarii; lower quality garments cost
500-800 denarii. All this while the average wage was 1 denarii / day. Only the wealthy could afford such luxuries,
clothes that cost, at minimum, 2 years salary. Consider what the "cost" of dressing down meant especially in a
city with many beautiful people! Wealth, then and now, remains a stumbling block for many Christians.
Paul discouraged expensive and fancy attire for 2 reasons: 1) at this time in Ephesus, this
type of apparel was associated with pagan worship and prostitution; a potential distraction in worship, and 2)
the clothes may garner favoritism at the expense of poorer members of the assembly and / or be a source of
jealousy or resentment to believers (see James 2:1-4).
3. Study 1 Timothy 2:10. What are the best adornments
"Good works." Paul is referring to good deeds placed in the direction of serving God. Adornment
"by means" of "good works" was the only outward appearance Paul emphasized as a reflection of the woman's beauty.
"Making a claim." This phrase was made in the present tense indicating a continual action.
Genuine Christianity makes a claim on godliness. This points to a continual process of character development as a
witness for and in service of God. "A Christian woman's beauty is found in her godly character and her love for
the Lord as demonstrated in all types of good works." (2)
Therefore, the real question is not so much "What shall I (or you) wear to worship?"! The question that looms
for us today, and believers in Jesus 2000 years ago, is and was, "What spirit of worship are we wearing?"!
Pastor Greg Kappas has known the Lord since 1975. He is married to his awesome
bride, Debbie (1982).
They have two beautiful girls, Michele and Tiffany. Dr. Kappas has a specific focus in leadership, with an
emphasis on the role of character and integrity in Biblical leadership. He has a passion for the integration of
Scriptural truth and relationships, with a Life Mission that Nurtures and Empowers Worldwide Leaders for
Jesus Christ in Truth and Relationships through: Integrity, Authenticity, Vision, Passion, Prayer, Outreach and
Loving His Family.
Pastor Greg has been involved with church planting since 1980 and has personally launched four churches of
various health (largest is now approximately two thousand people). He has coached/mentored leaders from around
the globe and has impacted the planting of over one hundred and fifty new churches. Greg is the founder of the
International Church Planters Summit (2001) and co-founder of the Northwest Church Planters Fellowship (1992).
He has a B.A. in Speech and two masters (M.Div. and Th.M.) in Biblical Exposition and Literature. Greg has a
doctorate in Biblical Leadership (D.Min.). Dr. Kappas has served as an assistant for two seminary presidents and
has taught in theological education since 1982 (Western Seminary, Multnomah School of the Bible, International
School of Theology and Imago Dei Institute/Cascade).
Greg and Debbie have lived in Israel (summer of 1984) and traveled studying leadership and church health
around the U.S./Israel since 1982.
Pastor Greg started the church planting ministry at Antioch Bible Church in 1991 (Seattle, WA) as the Lead
Pastor of the first new work and now is the Pastor of the Church Planting Ministry for Antioch (eight daughter
churches, fourteen granddaughters) where God is developing a multiplying church planting movement with an
intentional multi-ethnic, cross-cultural and multi-generational philosophy of ministry.
He is a co-founder of the Antioch Global Network (AGN - 2000) and Director of Church Planting and Revitalization
for the AGN where Greg trains leaders in the intentional ministry noted above. Dr. Kappas speaks for Leadership
Network, Dynamic Church Planting International and he serves existing churches through Church Dynamics International
in revitalization and establishing a process/flow of ministry with a strategy for implementation.
Greg loves sports. He starred for a national championship baseball team as a teenager, went to college on a
baseball scholarship (Marshall University) and turned down a free-agent contract with the Boston Red Sox.
Currently, he enjoys playing racquetball.
He loves to read, listen to music, go to the beach and relax with his family. Leading, preaching, teaching,
writing, encouraging and training leaders energizes Greg. Pastor Greg has a tender spot in his heart for developing
young, emerging leaders.
Dr. Kappas has been selected as one of the nation's top 100 evangelical influencers in leadership development
(1999). He is the author or co-author of several works, including Somewhere Inside the Rainbow, Elder
or Congregational Rule?, Recapturing the Art of Shepherding, Crucial Questions on Discipleship and
Twenty-Five Questions for Planting a Healthy Church.
Greg deeply loves the Lord! His favorite Biblical characters next to Jesus are Daniel, Joseph and Paul. His
life verse is John 15:16. Everything that he has is a gift from God and a reflection of Yahweh's grace.
1. Fritz Rienecker, A Linguistic Key to the Greek New Testament, Grand Rapids: Zondervan
Publishing Company (1990), 620-621.
2. Earl Radmacher, Ronald Allen, H. W. House, eds, The Nelson Study Bible, Nashville: Thomas
Nelson Publishers (1997), p. 2044.