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Index of Doctrinal Points
Article 21: The Atonement
We believe that Jesus Christ is a high priest forever according to the order of
Melchizedek-- made such by an oath-- and that he presented himself in our name before his Father, to
appease his wrath with full satisfaction by offering himself on the tree of the cross and pouring out
his precious blood for the cleansing of our sins, as the prophets had predicted.
For it is written that "the chastisement of our peace" was placed on the
Son of God and that "we are healed by his wounds." He was "led to death as a lamb";
he was "numbered among sinners" (Isa. 53:4-12) and condemned as a criminal by Pontius Pilate,
though Pilate had declared that he was innocent.
So he paid back what he had not stolen (Ps. 69:4), and he suffered-- the "just
for the unjust" (1 Pet. 3:18), in both his body and his soul-- in such a way that when he senses
the horrible punishment required by our sins his sweat became like "big drops of blood falling
on the ground" ( Luke 22:44). He cried, "My God, my God, why have you abandoned me?"
And he endured all this for the forgiveness of our sins.
Therefore we rightly say with Paul that we "know nothing but Jesus and him
crucified" (1 Cor. 2:2); we consider all things as "dung for the excellence of the knowledge
of our Lord Jesus Christ" (Phil. 3:8). We find all comforts in his wounds and have no need to
seek or invent any other means to reconcile ourselves with God than this one and only sacrifice, once
made, which renders believers perfect forever.
This is also why the angel of God called him Jesus-- that is, "Savior"--
because he would save his people from their sins (Matt. 1:21).
Article 22: The Righteousness of Faith
We believe that for us to acquire the true knowledge of this great mystery the Holy
Spirit kindles in our hearts a true faith that embraces Jesus Christ, with all his merits, and makes
him its own, and no longer looks for anything apart from him.
For it must necessarily follow that either all that is required for our salvation
is not in Christ or, if all is in him, then he who has Christ by faith has his salvation entirely.
Therefore, to say that Christ is not enough but that something else is needed as
well is a most enormous blasphemy against God-- for it then would follow that Jesus Christ is only
half a Savior. And therefore we justly say with Paul that we are justified "by faith alone"
or by faith "apart from works" (Rom. 3:28).
However, we do not mean, properly speaking, that it is faith itself that justifies
us-- for faith is only the instrument by which we embrace Christ, our righteousness.
But Jesus Christ is our righteousness in making available to us all his merits and
all the holy works he has done for us and in our place. And faith is the instrument that keeps us
in communion with him and with all his benefits.
When those benefits are made ours they are more than enough to absolve us of our
Article 23: The Justification of Sinners
We believe that our blessedness lies in the forgiveness of our sins because of Jesus
Christ, and that in it our righteousness before God is contained, as David and Paul teach us when
they declare that man blessed to whom God grants righteousness apart from works (Ps. 32:1; Rom. 4:6).
And the same apostle says that we are justified "freely" or "by grace"
through redemption in Jesus Christ (Rom. 3:24). And therefore we cling to this foundation, which is
firm forever, giving all glory to God, humbling ourselves, and recognizing ourselves as we are; not
claiming a thing for ourselves or our merits and leaning and resting on the sole obedience of Christ
crucified, which is ours when we believe in him.
That is enough to cover all our sins and to make us confident, freeing the conscience
from the fear, dread, and terror of God's approach, without doing what our first father, Adam, did,
who trembled as he tried to cover himself with fig leaves.
In fact, if we had to appear before God relying-- no matter how little-- on ourselves
or some other creature, then, alas, we would be swallowed up.
Therefore everyone must say with David: "Lord, do not enter into judgment with
your servants, for before you no living person shall be justified" (Ps. 143:2).
Article 24: The Sanctification of Sinners
We believe that this true faith, produced in man by the hearing of God's Word and
by the work of the Holy Spirit, regenerates him and makes him a "new man" (2 Cor. 5:17),
causing him to live the "new life" (Rom. 6:4) and freeing him from the slavery of sin.
Therefore, far from making people cold toward living in a pious and holy way, this
justifying faith, quite to the contrary, so works within them that apart from it they will never do
a thing out of love for God but only out of love for themselves and fear of being condemned.
So then, it is impossible for this holy faith to be unfruitful in a human being,
seeing that we do not speak of an empty faith but of what Scripture calls "faith working through
love" (Gal. 5:6), which leads a man to do by himself the works that God has commanded in his Word.
These works, proceeding from the good root of faith, are good and acceptable to God,
since they are all sanctified by his grace. Yet they do not count toward our justification-- for by
faith in Christ we are justified, even before we do good works. Otherwise they could not be good, any
more than the fruit of a tree could be good if the tree is not good in the first place.
So then, we do good works, but nor for merit-- for what would we merit? Rather, we
are indebted to God for the good works we do, and not he to us, since it is he who "works in us
both to will and do according to his good pleasure" (Phil. 2:13)-- thus keeping in mind what is
written: "When you have done all that is commanded you, then you shall say, 'We are unworthy
servants; we have done what it was our duty to do' "( Luke 17:10).
Yet we do not wish to deny that God rewards good works-- but it is by his grace
that he crowns his gifts.
Moreover, although we do good works we do not base our salvation on them; for we
cannot do any work that is not defiled by our flesh and also worthy of punishment. And even if we
could point to one, memory of a single sin is enough for God to reject that work.
So we would always be in doubt, tossed back and forth without any certainty, and
our poor consciences would be tormented constantly if they did not rest on the merit of the suffering
and death of our Savior.
Article 25: The Fulfillment of the Law
We believe that the ceremonies and symbols of the law have ended with the coming of
Christ, and that all foreshadowings have come to an end, so that the use of them ought to be abolished
among Christians. Yet the truth and substance of these things remain for us in Jesus Christ, in whom
they have been fulfilled.
Nevertheless, we continue to use the witnesses drawn from the law and prophets to
confirm us in the gospel and to regulate our lives with full integrity for the glory of God, according
to his will.
Article 26: The Intercession of Christ
We believe that we have no access to God except through the one and only Mediator
and Intercessor: Jesus Christ the Righteous (1 John 2:1).
He therefore was made man, uniting together the divine and human natures, so that
we human beings might have access to the divine Majesty. Otherwise we would have no access.
But this Mediator, whom the Father has appointed between himself and us, ought not
terrify us by his greatness, so that we have to look for another one, according to our fancy. For
neither in heaven nor among the creatures on earth is there anyone who loves us more than Jesus Christ
does. Although he was "in the form of God," he nevertheless "emptied himself,"
taking the form of "a man" and "a servant" for us (Phil. 2:6-8); and he made himself
"completely like his brothers" (Heb. 2:17).
Suppose we had to find another intercessor. Who would love us more than he who gave
his life for us, even though "we were his enemies" (Rom. 5:10)? And suppose we had to find
one who has prestige and power. Who has as much of these as he who is seated "at the right hand
of the Father" (Rom. 8:34; Heb. 1:3), and who has all power "in heaven and on earth"
(Matt. 28:18)? And who will be heard more readily than God's own dearly beloved Son?
So then, sheer unbelief has led to the practice of dishonoring the saints, instead
of honoring them. That was something the saints never did nor asked for, but which in keeping with
their duty, as appears from their writings, they consistently refused.
We should not plead here that we are unworthy-- for it is not a question of offering
our prayers on the basis of our own dignity but only on the basis of the excellence and dignity of
Jesus Christ, whose righteousness is ours by faith.
Since the apostle for good reason wants us to get rid of this foolish fear-- or rather,
this unbelief-- he says to us that Jesus Christ was "made like his brothers in all things,"
that he might be a high priest who is merciful and faithful to purify the sins of the people (Heb.
2:17). For since he suffered, being tempted, he is also able to help those who are tempted (Heb. 2:18).
And further, to encourage us more to approach him he says, "Since we have a
high priest, Jesus the Son of God, who has entered into heaven, we maintain our confession. For we
do not have a high priest who is unable to have compassion for our weaknesses, but one who was tempted
in all things, just as we are, except for sin. Let us go then with confidence to the throne of grace
that we may obtain mercy and find grace, in order to be helped" (Heb. 4:14-16).
The same apostle says that we "have liberty to enter into the holy place by
the blood of Jesus. Let us go, then, in the assurance of faith..." (Heb. 10:19, 22).
Likewise, "Christ's priesthood is forever. By this he is able to save completely
those who draw near to God through him who always lives to intercede for them" (Heb. 7:24-25).
What more do we need? For Christ himself declares: "I am the way, the truth,
and the life; no one comes to my Father but by me" (John 14:6). Why should we seek another intercessor?
Since it has pleased God to give us his Son as our Intercessor, let us not leave
him for another-- or rather seek, without ever finding. For when God gave him to us he knew well that
we were sinners.
Therefore, in following the command of Christ we call on the heavenly Father through
Christ, our only Mediator, as we are taught by the Lord's Prayer, being assured that we shall obtain
all we ask of the Father in his name.
Article 27: The Holy Catholic Church
We believe and confess one single catholic or universal church-- a holy congregation
and gathering of true Christian believers, awaiting their entire salvation in Jesus Christ being
washed by his blood, and sanctified and sealed by the Holy Spirit.
This church has existed from the beginning of the world and will last until the end,
as appears from the fact that Christ is eternal King who cannot be without subjects.
And this holy church is preserved by God against the rage of the whole world, even
though for a time it may appear very small in the eyes of men-- as though it were snuffed out.
For example, during the very dangerous time of Ahab the Lord preserved for himself
seven thousand men who did not bend their knees to Baal (1 Kings 19:18).
And so this holy church is not confined, bound, or limited to a certain place or
certain persons. But it is spread and dispersed throughout the entire world, though still joined
and united in heart and will, in one and the same Spirit, by the power of faith.
Article 28: The Obligations of Church Members
We believe that since this holy assembly and congregation is the gathering of those
who are saved and there is no salvation apart from it, no one ought to withdraw from it, content to
be by himself, regardless of his status or condition.
But all people are obliged to join and unite with it, keeping the unity of the church
by submitting to its instruction and discipline, by bending their necks under the yoke of Jesus Christ,
and by serving to build up one another, according to the gifts God has given them as members of each
other in the same body.
And to preserve this unity more effectively, it is the duty of all believers, according
to God's Word, to separate themselves from those who do not belong to the church, in order to join
this assembly wherever God has established it, even if civil authorities and royal decrees forbid and
death and physical punishment result.
And so, all who withdraw from the church or do not join it act contrary to God's
Article 29: The Marks of the True Church
We believe that we ought to discern diligently and very carefully, by the Word of
God, what is the true church-- for all sects in the world today claim for themselves the name of "the
We are not speaking here of the company of hypocrites who are mixed among the good
in the church and who nonetheless are not part of it, even though they are physically there. But we
are speaking of distinguishing the body and fellowship of the true church from all sects that call
themselves "the church."
The true church can be recognized if it has the following marks: The church engages
in the pure preaching of the gospel; it makes use of the pure administration of the sacraments as Christ
instituted them; it practices church discipline for correcting faults. In short, it governs itself
according to the pure Word of God, rejecting all things contrary to it and holding Jesus Christ as
the only Head. By these marks one can be assured of recognizing the true church-- and no one ought
to be separated from it.
As for those who can belong to the church, we can recognize them by the distinguishing
marks of Christians: namely by faith, and by their fleeing from sin and pursuing righteousness, once
they have received the one and only Savior, Jesus Christ. They love the true God and their neighbors,
without turning to the right or left, and they crucify the flesh and its works.
Though great weakness remains in them, they fight against it by the Spirit all the
days of their lives, appealing constantly to the blood, suffering, death, and obedience of the Lord
Jesus, in whom they have forgiveness of their sins, through faith in him.
As for the false church, it assigns more authority to itself and its ordinances than
to the Word of God; it does not want to subject itself to the yoke of Christ; it does not administer
the sacraments as Christ commanded in his Word; it rather adds to them or subtracts from them as it
pleases; it bases itself on men, more than on Jesus Christ; it persecutes those who live holy lives
according to the Word of God and who rebuke it for its faults, greed, and idolatry.
These two churches are easy to recognize and thus to distinguish from each
Article 30: The Government of the Church
We believe that this true church ought to be governed according to the spiritual
order that our Lord has taught us in his Word. There should be ministers or pastors to preach the
Word of God and administer the sacraments. There should also be elders and deacons, along with the
pastors, to make up the council of the church.
By this means true religion is preserved; true doctrine is able to take its course;
and evil men are corrected spiritually and held in check, so that also the poor and all the afflicted
may be helped and comforted according to their need.
By this means everything will be done well and in good order in the church, when
such persons are elected who are faithful and are chosen according to the rule that Paul gave to
Timothy (1 Tim. 3).
Article 31: The Officers of the Church
We believe that ministers of the Word of God, elders, and deacons ought to be chosen
to their offices by a legitimate election of the church, with prayer in the name of the Lord, and in
good order, as the Word of God teaches.
So everyone must be careful not to push himself forward improperly, but he must
wait for God's call, so that he may be assured of his calling and be certain that he is chosen by
As for the ministers of the Word, they all have the same power and authority, no
matter where they may be, since they are all servants of Jesus Christ, the only universal bishop,
and the only head of the church.
Moreover, to keep God's holy order from being violated or despised, we say that
everyone ought, as much as possible, to hold the ministers of the Word and elders of the church in
special esteem, because of the work they do, and be at peace with them, without grumbling, quarreling,
Article 32: The Order and Discipline of the Church
We also believe that although it is useful and good for those who govern the churches
to establish and set up a certain order among themselves for maintaining the body of the church, they
ought always to guard against deviating from what Christ, our only Master, has ordained for us.
Therefore we reject all human innovations and all laws imposed on us, in our worship
of God, which bind and force our consciences in any way.
So we accept only what is proper to maintain harmony and unity and to keep all in
obedience to God.
To that end excommunication, with all it involves, according to the Word of God,
Article 33: The Sacraments
We believe that our good God, mindful of our crudeness and weakness, has ordained
sacraments for us to seal his promises in us, to pledge his good will and grace toward us, and also
to nourish and sustain our faith.
He has added these to the Word of the gospel to represent better to our external
senses both what he enables us to understand by his Word and what he does inwardly in our hearts,
confirming in us the salvation he imparts to us.
For they are visible signs and seals of something internal and invisible, by means
of which God works in us through the power of the Holy Spirit. So they are not empty and hollow signs
to fool and deceive us, for their truth is Jesus Christ, without whom they would be nothing.
Moreover, we are satisfied with the number of sacraments that Christ our Master has
ordained for us. There are only two: the sacrament of baptism and the Holy Supper of Jesus
Article 34: The Sacrament of Baptism
We believe and confess that Jesus Christ, in whom the law is fulfilled, has by his
shed blood put an end to every other shedding of blood, which anyone might do or wish to do in order
to atone or satisfy for sins.
Having abolished circumcision, which was done with blood, he established in its place
the sacrament of baptism. By it we are received into God's church and set apart from all other people
and alien religions, that we may be dedicated entirely to him, bearing his mark and sign. It also witnesses
to us that he will be our God forever, since he is our gracious Father.
Therefore he has commanded that all those who belong to him be baptized with pure
water in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit (Matt. 28:19).
In this way he signifies to us that just as water washes away the dirt of the body
when it is poured on us and also is seen on the body of the baptized when it is sprinkled on him, so
too the blood of Christ does the same thing internally, in the soul, by the Holy Spirit. It washes
and cleanses it from its sins and transforms us from being the children of wrath into the children
This does not happen by the physical water but by the sprinkling of the precious
blood of the Son of God, who is our Red Sea, through which we must pass to escape the tyranny of Pharoah,
who is the devil, and to enter the spiritual land of Canaan.
So ministers, as far as their work is concerned, give us the sacrament and what is
visible, but our Lord gives what the sacrament signifies-- namely the invisible gifts and graces; washing,
purifying, and cleansing our souls of all filth and unrighteousness; renewing our hearts and filling
them with all comfort; giving us true assurance of his fatherly goodness; clothing us with the "new
man" and stripping off the "old," with all its works.
For this reason we believe that anyone who aspires to reach eternal life ought to be
baptized only once without ever repeating it-- for we cannot be born twice. Yet this baptism is profitable
not only when the water is on us and when we receive it but throughout our entire lives.
For that reason we detest the error of the Anabaptists who are not content with a
single baptism once received and also condemn the baptism of the children of believers. We believe
our children ought to be baptized and sealed with the sign of the covenant, as little children were
circumcised in Israel on the basis of the same promises made to our children.
And truly, Christ has shed his blood no less for washing the little children of believers
than he did for adults.
Therefore they ought to receive the sign and sacrament of what Christ has done for
them, just as the Lord commanded in the law that by offering a lamb for them the sacrament of the
suffering and death of Christ would be granted them shortly after their birth. This was the sacrament
of Jesus Christ.
Furthermore, baptism does for our children what circumcision did for the Jewish people.
That is why Paul calls baptism the "circumcision of Christ" (Col. 2:11).
Article 35: The Sacrament of the Lord's Supper
We believe and confess that our Savior Jesus Christ has ordained and instituted the
sacrament of the Holy Supper to nourish and sustain those who are already born again and ingrafted
into his family: his church.
Now those who are born again have two lives in them. The one is physical and temporal--
they have it from the moment of their first birth, and it is common to all. The other is spiritual
and heavenly, and is given them in their second birth; it comes through the Word of the gospel in the
communion of the body of Christ; and this life is common to God's elect only.
Thus, to support the physical and earthly life God has prescribed for us an appropriate
earthly and material bread, which is as common to all as life itself also is. But to maintain the
spiritual and heavenly life that belongs to believers he has sent a living bread that came down from
heaven: namely Jesus Christ, who nourishes and maintains the spiritual life of believers when eaten--
that is, when appropriated and received spiritually by faith.
To represent to us this spiritual and heavenly bread Christ has instituted an earthly
and visible bread as the sacrament of his body and wine as the sacrament of his blood. He did this
to testify to us that just as truly as we take and hold the sacraments in our hands and eat and drink
it in our mouths, by which our life is then sustained, so truly we receive into our souls, for our
spiritual life, the true body and true blood of Christ, our only Savior. We receive these by faith,
which is the hand and mouth of our souls.
Now it is certain that Jesus Christ did not prescribe his sacraments for us in vain,
since he works in us all he represents by these holy signs, although the manner in which he does it
goes beyond our understanding and is uncomprehensible to us, just as the operation of God's Spirit
is hidden and incomprehensible.
Yet we do not go wrong when we say that what is eaten is Christ's own natural body
and what is drunk is his own blood-- but the manner in which we eat it is not by the mouth but by the
Spirit, through faith.
In that way Jesus Christ remains always seated at the right hand of God the Father
in heaven-- but he never refrains on that account to communicate himself to us through faith.
This banquet is a spiritual table at which Christ communicates himself to us with
all his benefits. At that table he makes us enjoy himself as much as the merits of his suffering and
death, as he nourishes, strengthens, and comforts our poor, desolate souls by the eating of his flesh,
and relieves and renews them by the drinking of his blood.
Moreover, though the sacraments and thing signified are joined together, not all
receive both of them. The wicked person certainly takes the sacrament, to his condemnation, but does
not receive the truth of the sacrament, just as Judas and Simon the Sorcerer both indeed received
the sacrament, but not Christ, who was signified by it. He is communicated only to believers.
Finally, with humility and reverence we receive the holy sacrament in the gathering
of God's people, as we engage together, with thanksgiving, in a holy remembrance of the death of
Christ our Savior, and as we thus confess our faith and Christian religion. Therefore no one should
come to this table without examining himself carefully, lest "by eating this bread and drinking
this cup he eat and drink to his own judgment" (1 Cor. 11:27).
In short, by the use of this holy sacrament we are moved to a fervent love of God
and our neighbors.
Therefore we reject as desecrations of the sacraments all the muddled ideas and
damnable inventions that men have added and mixed in with them. And we say that we should be content
with the procedure that Christ and the apostles have taught us and speak of these things as they
have spoken of them.
Article 36: The Civil Government
We believe that because of the depravity of the human race our good God has ordained
kings, princes, and civil officers. He wants the world to be governed by laws and policies so that
human lawlessness may be restrained and that everything may be conducted in good order among human
For that purpose he has placed the sword in the hands of the government, to punish
evil people and protect the good.
And being called in this manner to contribute to the advancement of a society that
is pleasing to God, the civil rulers have the task, subject to God's law, of removing every obstacle
to the preaching of the gospel and to every aspect of divine worship.
They should do this while completely refraining from every tendency toward exercising
absolute authority, and while functioning in the sphere entrusted to them, with the means belonging
And the government's task is not limited to caring for and watching over the public
domain but extends also to upholding the sacred ministry, with a view to removing and destroying all
idolatry and false worship of the Antichrist; to promoting the kingdom of Jesus Christ; and to furthering
the preaching of the gospel everywhere; to the end that God may be honored and served by everyone,
as he requires in his Word.
Moreover everyone, regardless of status, condition, or rank, must be subject to the
government, and pay taxes, and hold its representatives in honor and respect, and obey them in all
things that are not in conflict with God's Word, praying for them that the Lord may be willing to lead
them in all their ways and that we may live a peaceful and quiet life in all piety and decency.
And on this matter we denounce the Anabaptists, other anarchists, and in general all
those who want to reject the authorities and civil officers and to subvert justice by introducing common
ownership of goods and corrupting the moral order that God has established among human
Article 37: The Last Judgment
Finally we believe, according to God's Word, that when the time appointed by the Lord
is come (which is unknown to all creatures) and the number of the elect is complete, our Lord Jesus
Christ will come from heaven, bodily and visibly, as he ascended, with great glory and majesty, to
declare himself the judge of the living and the dead. He will burn this old world, in fire and flame,
in order to cleanse it.
Then all human creatures will appear in person before the great judge-- men, women,
and children, who have lived from the beginning until the end of the world.
They will be summoned there by the voice of the archangel and by the sound of the
divine trumpet (1 Thess. 4:16).
For all those who died before that time will be raised from the earth, their spirits
being joined and united with their own bodies in which they lived. And as for those who are still
alive, they will not die like the others but will be changed "in the twinkling of an eye"
from "corruptible to incorruptible" (1 Cor. 15:51-53).
Then "the books" (that is, the consciences) will be opened, and the dead
will be judged according to the things they did in the world (Rev. 20:12), whether good or evil. Indeed,
all people will give account of all the idle words they have spoken (Matt. 12:36), which the world
regards as only playing games. And then the secrets and hypocrisies of men will be publicly uncovered
in the sight of all.
Therefore, with good reason the thought of this judgment is horrible and dreadful to
wicked and evil people. But it is very pleasant and a great comfort to the righteous and elect, since
their total redemption will then be accomplished. They will then receive the fruits of their labor
and of the trouble they have suffered; their innocence will be openly recognized by all; and they will
see the terrible vengeance that God will bring on the evil ones who tyrannized, oppressed, and tormented
them in this world.
The evil ones will be convicted by the witness of their own consciences, and shall
be made immortal-- but only to be tormented in the everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his
angels (Matt. 25:14).
In contrast, the faithful and elect will be crowned with glory and honor. The Son
of God will "confess their names" (Matt. 10:32) before God his Father and the holy and elect
angels; all tears will be "wiped from their eyes" (Rev. 7:17); and their cause-- at present
condemned as heretical and evil by many judges and civil officers-- will be acknowledged as the
"cause of the Son of God."
And as a gracious reward the Lord will make them possess a glory such as the heart
of man could never imagine.
So we look forward to that great day with longing in order to enjoy fully the promises
of God in Christ Jesus, our Lord.