Index of Doctrinal Points
No sooner than one generation after Luther's death, serious controversy arose over some aspects
of the Augsburg Confession. The Epitome of the Formula of Concord was methodically prepared
by: 1) stating each controversy, 2) clarifying the Augsburg Confession with biblical proof texts,
and 3) refuting the dissenting positions. It was written for congregational use and study.
Comprehensive Summary, Rule and Norm
According to which all dogmas should be judged, and the erroneous teachings [controversies] that
have occurred should be decided and explained in a Christian way.
1. We believe, teach, and confess that the sole rule and standard according to
which all dogmas together with [all] teachers should be estimated and judged are the prophetic and
apostolic Scriptures of the Old and of the New Testament alone, as it is written Ps. 119:105: Thy
Word is a lamp unto my feet and a light unto my path. And St. Paul: Though an angel from heaven
preach any other gospel unto you, let him be accursed, Gal. 1:8.
Other writings, however, of ancient or modern teachers, whatever name they bear,
must not be regarded as equal to the Holy Scriptures, but all of them together be subjected to them,
and should not be received otherwise or further than as witnesses, [which are to show] in what manner
after the time of the apostles, and at what places, this [pure] doctrine of the prophets and apostles
2. And because directly after the times of the apostles, and even while they were
still living, false teachers and heretics arose, and symbols, i. e., brief, succinct [categorical]
confessions, were composed against them in the early Church, which were regarded as the unanimous,
universal Christian faith and confession of the orthodox and true Church, namely, the Apostles' Creed,
the Nicene Creed, and the Athanasian Creed, we pledge ourselves to them, and hereby reject all heresies
and dogmas which, contrary to them, have been introduced into the Church of God.
3. As to the schisms in matters of faith, however, which have occurred in our time,
we regard as the unanimous consensus and declaration of our Christian faith and confession, especially
against the Papacy and its false worship, idolatry, superstition, and against other sects, as the
symbol of our time, the First, Unaltered Augsburg Confession, delivered to the Emperor Charles V at
Augsburg in the year 1530, in the great Diet, together with its Apology, and the Articles composed
at Smalcald in the year 1537, and subscribed at that time by the chief theologians.
And because such matters concern also the laity and the salvation of their souls,
we also confess the Small and Large Catechisms of Dr. Luther, as they are included in Luther's works,
as the Bible of the laity, wherein everything is comprised which is treated at greater length in Holy
Scripture, and is necessary for a Christian man to know for his salvation.
To this direction, as above announced, all doctrines are to be conformed, and what
is, contrary thereto is to be rejected and condemned, as opposed to the unanimous declaration of
In this way the distinction between the Holy Scriptures of the Old and of the New
Testament and all other writings is preserved, and the Holy Scriptures alone remain the only judge,
rule, and standard, according to which, as the only test-stone, all dogmas shall and must be discerned
and judged, as to whether they are good or evil, right or wrong.
But the other symbols and writings cited are not judges, as are the Holy Scriptures,
but only a testimony and declaration of the faith, as to how at any time the Holy Scriptures have
been understood and explained in the articles in controversy in the Church of God by those then living,
and how the opposite dogma was rejected and condemned [by what arguments the dogmas conflicting with
the Holy Scripture were rejected and condemned].
I. Original Sin.
STATUS CONTROVERSIAE. The Principal Question in This Controversy.
Whether original sin is properly and without any distinction man's corrupt nature, substance, and
essence, or at any rate the principal and best part of his essence [substance], namely, the rational
soul itself in its highest state and powers; or whether, even after the Fall, there is a distinction
between man's substance, nature, essence, body, soul, and original sin, so that the nature (itself]
is one thing, and original sin, which inheres in the corrupt nature and corrupts the nature, another.
Affirmative Theses. The Pure Doctrine, Faith, and Confession according to the Aforesaid
Standard and Summary Declaration.
1. We believe, teach, and confess that there is a distinction between man's
nature, not only as he was originally created by God pure and holy and without sin, but also as we
have it [that nature] now after the Fall, namely, between the nature [itself], which even after the
Fall is and remains a creature of God, and original sin, and that this distinction is as great as
the distinction between a work of God and a work of the devil.
2. We believe, teach, and confess also that this distinction should be
maintained with the greatest care, because this doctrine, that no distinction is to be made between
our corrupt human nature and original sin, conflicts with the chief articles of our Christian faith
concerning creation, redemption, sanctification, and the resurrection of our body, and cannot coexist
For God created not only the body and soul of Adam and Eve before the Fall, but also
our bodies and souls after the Fall, notwithstanding that they are corrupt, which God also still
acknowledges as His work, as it is written Job 10:8: Thine hands have made me and fashioned me together
round about. Deut. 32:18; Is. 45:9ff; 54:5; 64:8; Acts 17:28; Job 10:8; Ps. 100:3; 139:14; Eccl. 12:1.
Moreover, the Son of God has assumed this human nature, however, without sin, and
therefore not a foreign, but our own flesh, into the unity of His person, and according to it is
become our true Brother. Heb. 2:14: Forasmuch, then, as the children were partakers of flesh and
blood, He also Himself likewise took part of the same. Again, 16:4, 15: He took not on Him the nature
of angels, but He took on Him the seed of Abraham. Wherefore in all things it behooved Him to be made
like unto His brethren, yet without sin.
In like manner Christ has also redeemed it as His work, sanctifies it as His work,
raises it from the dead, and gloriously adorns it as His work. But original sin He has not created,
assumed, redeemed, sanctified; nor will He raise it, will neither adorn nor save it in the elect,
but in the (blessed] resurrection it will be entirely destroyed.
Hence the distinction between the corrupt nature and the corruption which infects
the nature and by which the nature became corrupt, can easily be discerned.
3. But, on the other hand, we believe, teach, and confess that original sin
is not a slight, but so deep a corruption of human nature that nothing healthy or uncorrupt has
remained in man's body or soul, in his inner or outward powers, but, as the Church sings:
Through Adam's fall is all corrupt, Nature and essence human.
This damage is unspeakable, and cannot be discerned by reason, but only from God's
And [we affirm] that no one but God alone can separate from one another the nature
and this corruption of the nature, which will fully come to pass through death, in the [blessed]
resurrection, where our nature which we now bear will rise and live eternally without original sin
and separated and sundered from it, as it is written Job 19:26: I shall be compassed again with this
my skin, and in my flesh shall I see God, whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold.
Negative Theses. Rejection of the False Opposite Dogmas.
1. Therefore we reject and condemn the teaching that original sin is only
a reatus or debt on account of what has been committed by another [diverted to us] without any corruption
of our nature.
2. Also, that evil lusts are not sin, but con-created, essential properties
of the nature, or, as though the above-mentioned defect and damage were not truly sin, because of
which man without Christ [not ingrafted into Christ] would be a child of wrath.
3. We likewise reject the Pelagian error, by which it is alleged that man's
nature even after the Fall is incorrupt, and especially with respect to spiritual things has remained
entirely good and pure in naturalibus, i. e., in its natural powers.
4. Also, that original sin is only a slight, insignificant spot on the outside,
dashed upon the nature, or a blemish that has been blown upon it, beneath which [nevertheless] the
nature has retained its good powers even in spiritual things.
5. Also, that original sin is only an external impediment to the good spiritual
powers, and not a despoliation or want of the same, as when a magnet is smeared with garlic-juice,
its natural power is not thereby removed, but only impeded; or that this stain can be easily wiped
away like a spot from the face or pigment from the wall.
6. Also, that in man the human nature and essence are not entirely corrupt,
but that man still has something good in him, even in spiritual things, namely, capacity, skill, aptness,
or ability in spiritual things to begin, to work, or to help working for something [good].
7. On the other hand, we also reject the false dogma of the Manicheans, when
it is taught that original sin, as something essential and self-subsisting, has been infused by Satan
into the nature, and intermingled with it, as poison and wine are mixed.
8. Also, that not the natural man, but something else and extraneous to man,
sins, on account of which not the nature, but only original sin in the nature, is accused.
9. We reject and condemn also as a Manichean error the doctrine that original
sin is properly and without any distinction the substance, nature, and essence itself of the corrupt
man, so that a distinction between the corrupt nature, as such, after the Fall and original sin should
not even be conceived of, nor that they could be distinguished from one another [even] in thought.
10. Now, this original sin is called by Dr. Luther nature-sin, person-sin,
essential sin, not because the nature, person, or essence of man is, without any distinction, itself
original sin, but in order to indicate by such words the distinction between original sin, which inheres
in human nature, and other sins, which are called actual sins.
11. For original sin is not a sin which is committed, but it inheres in the
nature, substance, and essence of man, so that, though no wicked thought ever should arise in the heart
of corrupt man, no idle word were spoken, no wicked deed were done, yet the nature is nevertheless
corrupted through original sin, which is born in us by reason of the sinful seed, and is a fountainhead
of all other actual sins, as wicked thoughts, words, and works, as it is written Matt. 15:19: Out of
the heart proceed evil thoughts. Also Gen. 6:5; 8:21: The imagination of man's heart is evil from
12. Thus there is also to be noted well the diverse signification of the word
nature, whereby the Manicheans cover their error and lead astray many simple men. For sometimes it
means the essence [the very substance] of man, as when it is said: God created human nature. But at
other times it means the disposition and the vicious quality [disposition, condition, defect, or vice]
of a thing, which inheres in the nature or essence, as when it is said: The nature of the serpent is
to bite, and the nature and disposition of man is to sin, and is sin; here the word nature does not
mean the substance of man, but something that inheres in the nature or substance.
13. But as to the Latin terms substantia and accidens, because they are not
words of Holy Scripture, and besides unknown to the ordinary man, they should not be used in sermons
before. ordinary, uninstructed people, but simple people should be spared them.
But in the schools, among the learned, these words are rightly retained in disputations
concerning original sin, because they are well known and used without any misunderstanding, to distinguish
exactly between the essence of a thing and what attaches to it in an accidental way.
For the distinction between God's work and that of the devil is thereby designated
in the clearest way, because the devil can create no substance, but can only, in an accidental way,
by the providence of God [God permitting], corrupt the substance created by God.
II. Free Will.
STATUS CONTROVERSIAE. The Principal Question in This Controversy.
Since the will of man is found in four unlike states, namely: 1. before the Fall; 2. since the
Fall; 3. after regeneration; 4. after the resurrection of the body, the chief question is only concerning
the will and ability of man in the second state, namely, what powers in spiritual things he has of
himself after the fall of our first parents and before regeneration, and whether he is able by his
own powers, prior to and before his regeneration by God's Spirit, to dispose and prepare himself for
God's grace, and to accept [and apprehend], or not, the grace offered through the Holy Ghost in the
Word and holy [divinely instituted] Sacraments.
Affirmative Theses. The Pure Doctrine concerning This Article, according to God's Word.
1. Concerning this subject, our doctrine, faith, and confession is, that in
spiritual things the understanding and reason of man are [altogether] blind, and by their own powers
understand nothing, as it is written 1 Cor. 2:14: The natural man receiveth not the things of the
Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him; neither can he know them when he is examined concerning
2. Likewise we believe, teach, and confess that the unregenerate will of man
is not only turned away from God, but also has become an enemy of God, so that it only has an inclination
and desire for that which is evil and contrary to God, as it is written Gen. 8:21: The imagination
of man's heart is evil from his youth. Also Rom. 8:7: The carnal mind is enmity against God; for it
is not subject to the Law of God, neither, indeed, can be. Yea, as little as a dead body can quicken
itself to bodily, earthly life, so little can man, who by sin is spiritually dead, raise himself to
spiritual life, as it is written Eph. 2:5: Even when we were dead in sins, He hath quickened us together
with Christ; 2 Cor. 3:5: Not that we are sufficient of ourselves to think anything good as of ourselves,
but that we are sufficient is of God.
3. God the Holy Ghost, however, does not effect conversion without means, but
uses for this purpose the preaching and hearing of God's Word, as it is written Rom. 1:16: The Gospel
is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth. Also Rom. 10:17: Faith cometh by
hearing of the Word of God. And it is God's will that His Word should be heard, and that man's ears
should not be closed. Ps. 95:8.
With this Word the Holy Ghost is present, and opens hearts, so that they, as Lydia
in Acts 16:14, are attentive to it, and are thus converted alone through the grace and power of the
Holy Ghost, whose work alone the conversion of man is. For without His grace, and if He do not grant
the increase, our willing and running, our planting, sowing, and watering, all are nothing, as Christ
says John 15:5: Without Me ye can do nothing. With these brief words He denies to the free will its
powers, and ascribes everything to God's grace, in order that no one may boast before God. 1 Cor.
1:29; 2 Cor. 12:5; Jer. 9:23.
Negative Theses. Contrary False Doctrine.
Accordingly, we reject and condemn all the following errors as contrary to the standard of God's
1. The delirium [insane dogma] of philosophers who are called Stoics, as also
of the Manicheans, who taught that everything that happens must so happen, and cannot happen otherwise,
and that everything that man does, even in outward things, he does by compulsion, and that he is coerced
to evil works and deeds, as inchastity, robbery, murder, theft, and the like.
2. We reject also the error of the gross Pelagians, who taught that man by
his own powers, without the grace of the Holy Ghost, can turn himself to God, believe the Gospel, be
obedient from the heart to God's Law, and thus merit the forgiveness of sins and eternal life.
3. We reject also the error of the Semi-Pelagians, who teach that man by his
own powers can make a beginning of his conversion, but without the grace of the Holy Ghost cannot
4. Also, when it is taught that, although man by his free will before regeneration
is too weak to make a beginning, and by his own powers to turn himself to God, and from the heart to
be obedient to God, yet, if the Holy Ghost by the preaching of the Word has made a beginning, and
therein offered His grace, then the will of man from its own natural powers can add something, though
little and feebly, to this end, can help and cooperate, qualify and prepare itself for grace, and
embrace and accept it, and believe the Gospel.
5. Also, that man, after he has been born again, can perfectly observe and
completely fulfil God's Law, and that this fulfilling is our righteousness before God, by which we
merit eternal life.
6. Also, we reject and condemn the error of the Enthusiasts, who imagine that
God without means, without the hearing of God's Word, also without the use of the holy Sacraments,
draws men to Himself, and enlightens, justifies, and saves them. (Enthusiasts we call those who expect
the heavenly illumination of the Spirit [celestial revelations] without the preaching of God's Word.)
7. Also, that in conversion and regeneration God entirely exterminates the
substance and essence of the old Adam, and especially the rational soul, and in conversion and regeneration
creates a new essence of the soul out of nothing.
8. Also, when the following expressions are employed without explanation, namely,
that the will of man before, in, and after conversion resists the Holy Ghost, and that the Holy Ghost
is given to those who resist Him intentionally and persistently; for, as Augustine says, in conversion
God makes willing persons out of the unwilling and dwells in the willing.
As to the expressions of ancient and modern teachers of the Church, when it is said:
Deus trahit, sed volentem trahit, i. e., God draws, but He draws the willing; likewise, Hominis
voluntas in conversione non est otiosa, sed agit aliquid, i. e., In conversion the will of man is not
idle, but also effects something, we maintain that, inasmuch as these expressions have been introduced
for confirming [the false opinion concerning] the powers of the natural free will in man's conversion,
against the doctrine of God's grace, they do not conform to the form of sound doctrine, and therefore,
when we speak of conversion to God, justly ought to be avoided.
But, on the other hand, it is correctly said that in conversion God, through the
drawing of the Holy Ghost, makes out of stubborn and unwilling men willing ones, and that after such
conversion in the daily exercise of repentance the regenerate will of man is not idle, but also
cooperates in all the works of the Holy Ghost, which He performs through us.
9. Also what Dr. Luther has written, namely, that man's will in his conversion
is pure passive, that is, that it does nothing whatever, is to be understood respectu divinae gratiae
in accendendis novis motibus, that is, when God's Spirit, through the Word heard or the use of the
holy Sacraments, lays hold upon man's will, and works [in man] the new birth and conversion. For when
[after] the Holy Ghost has wrought and accomplished this, and man's will has been changed and renewed
by His divine power and working alone, then the new will of man is an instrument and organ of God
the Holy Ghost, so that he not only accepts grace, but also cooperates with the Holy Ghost in the
works which follow.
Therefore, before the conversion of man there are only two efficient causes, namely,
the Holy Ghost and the Word of God, as the instrument of the Holy Ghost, by which He works conversion.
This Word man is [indeed] to hear; however, it is not by his own powers, but only through the grace
and working of the Holy Ghost that he can yield faith to it and accept it.
III. The Righteousness of Faith Before God.
STATUS CONTROVERSIAE. The Principal Question In This Controversy.
Since it is unanimously confessed in our churches, in accordance with God's Word and the sense
of the Augsburg Confession, that we poor sinners are justified before God and saved alone by faith
in Christ, and thus Christ alone is our Righteousness, who is true God and man, because in Him the
divine and human natures are personally united with one another, Jer. 23:6; 1 Cor. 1:30; 2 Cor. 5:21,
the question has arisen: According to which nature is Christ our Righteousness? And thus two contrary
errors have arisen in some churches.
For the one side has held that Christ according to His divinity alone is our Righteousness, if
He dwell in us by faith; contrasted with this divinity, dwelling in us by faith, the sins of all men
must be regarded as a drop of water compared to the great ocean. Others, on the contrary, have held
that Christ is our Righteousness before God according to the human nature alone.
Affirmative Theses. Pure Doctrine of the Christian Churches against Both Errors Just Mentioned.
1. Against both the errors just recounted, we unanimously believe, teach,
and confess that Christ is our Righteousness neither according to the divine nature alone nor according
to the human nature alone, but that it is the entire Christ according to both natures, in His obedience
alone, which as God and man He rendered to the Father even unto death, and thereby merited for us
the forgiveness of sins and eternal life, as it is written: As by one man's disobedience many were
made sinners, so by the obedience of One shall many be made righteous, Rom. 5:19.
2. Accordingly, we believe, teach, and confess that our righteousness before
God is (this very thing], that God forgives us our sins out of pure grace, without any work, merit,
or worthiness of ours preceding, present, or following, that He presents and imputes to us the righteousness
of Christ's obedience, on account of which righteousness we are received into grace by God, and
regarded as righteous.
3. We believe, teach, and confess that faith alone is the means and instrument
whereby we lay hold of Christ, and thus in Christ of that righteousness which avails before God, for
whose sake this faith is imputed to us for righteousness, Rom. 4:5.
4. We believe, teach, and confess that this faith is not a bare knowledge
of the history of Christ, but such a gift of God by which we come to the right knowledge of Christ
as our Redeemer in the Word of the Gospel, and trust in Him that for the sake of His obedience alone
we have, by grace, the forgiveness of sins, are regarded as holy and righteous before God the Father,
and eternally saved.
5. We believe, teach, and confess that according to the usage of Holy Scripture
the word justify means in this article, to absolve, that is, to declare free from sins. Prov. 17:15:
He that justifieth the wicked, and he that condemneth the righteous, even they both are abomination
to the Lord. Also Rom. 8:33: Who shall lay anything to the charge of God's elect? It is God that justifieth.
And when, in place of this, the words regeneratio and vivificatio, that is, regeneration
and vivification, are employed, as in the Apology, this is done in the same sense. By these terms, in other
places, the renewal of man is understood, and distinguished from justification by faith.
6.We believe, teach, and confess also that notwithstanding the fact that many
weaknesses and defects cling to the true believers and truly regenerate, even to the grave, still
they must not on that account doubt either their righteousness which has been imputed to them by
faith, or the salvation of their souls, but must regard it as certain that for Christ's sake, according
to the promise and [immovable] Word of the holy Gospel, they have a gracious God.
7. We believe, teach, and confess that for the preservation of the pure
doctrine concerning the righteousness of faith before God it is necessary to urge with special diligence
the particulae exclusivae, that is, the exclusive particles, i. e., the following words of the holy
Apostle Paul, by which the merit of Christ is entirely separated from our works, and the honor given
to Christ alone, when the holy Apostle Paul writes: Of grace, without merit, without Law, without
works, not of works. All these words together mean as much as that we are justified and saved alone
by faith in Christ. Eph. 2:8; Rom. 1:17; 3:24; 4:3ff.; Gal. 3:11; Heb. 11.
8. We believe, teach, and confess that, although the contrition that precedes,
and the good works that follow, do not belong to the article of justification before God, yet one is
not to imagine a faith of such a kind as can exist and abide with, and alongside of, a wicked intention
to sin and to act against the conscience. But after man has been justified by faith, then a true living
faith worketh by love, Gal. 5:6, so that thus good works always follow justifying faith, and are surely
found with it, if it be true and living; for it never is alone, but always has with it love and hope.
Antitheses: Contrary Doctrines Rejected.
Therefore we reject and condemn all the following errors:
1. That Christ is our Righteousness according to His divine nature alone.
2. That Christ is our Righteousness according to His human nature alone.
3. That in the sayings of the prophets and apostles where the righteousness
of faith is spoken of the words justify and to be justified are not to signify declaring or being
declared free from sins, and obtaining the forgiveness of sins, but actually being made righteous
before God, because of love infused by the Holy Ghost, virtues, and the works following them.
4. That faith looks not only to the obedience of Christ, but to His divine
nature, as it dwells and works in us, and that by this indwelling our sins are covered.
5. That faith is such a trust in the obedience of Christ as can exist and
remain in a man even when he has no genuine repentance, in whom also no love follows, but who persists
in sins against his conscience.
6. That not God Himself, but only the gifts of God, dwell in believers.
7. That faith saves on this account, because by faith the renewal, which
consists in love to God and one's neighbor, is begun in us.
8. That faith has the first place in justification, nevertheless also renewal
and love belong to our righteousness before God in such a manner that they [renewal and love] are
indeed not the chief cause of our righteousness, but that nevertheless our righteousness before God
is not entire or perfect without this love and renewal.
9. That believers are justified before God and saved jointly by the imputed
righteousness of Christ and by the new obedience begun in them, or in part by the imputation of Christ's
righteousness, but in part also by the new obedience begun in them.
10. That the promise of grace is made our own by faith in the heart, and by
the confession which is made with the mouth, and by other virtues.
11. That faith does not justify without good works; so that good works are
necessarily required for righteousness, and without their presence man cannot be justified.