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Index of Doctrinal Points
IV. Good Works.
STATUS CONTROVERSIAE. The Principal Question In the Controversy concerning Good Works.
Concerning the doctrine of good works two divisions have arisen in some churches:
1. First, some theologians have become divided because of the following
expressions, where the one side wrote: Good works are necessary for salvation. It is impossible
to be saved without good works. Also: No one has ever been saved without good works. But the other
side, on the contrary, wrote: Good works are injurious to salvation.
2. Afterwards a schism arose also between some theologians with respect to
the two words necessary and free, since the one side contended that the word necessary should not be
employed concerning the new obedience, which, they say, does not flow from necessity and coercion,
but from a voluntary spirit. The other side insisted on the word necessary, because, they say, this
obedience is not at our option, but regenerate men are obliged to render this obedience.
From this disputation concerning the terms a controversy afterwards occurred concerning
the subject itself; for the one side contended that among Christians the Law should not be urged at
all, but men should be exhorted to good works from the Holy Gospel alone; the other side contradicted this.
Affirmtive Theses. Pure Doctrine of the Christian Churches concerning This Controversy.
For the thorough statement and decision of this controversy our doctrine, faith, and confession is:
1. That good works certainly and without doubt follow true faith, if it is
not a dead, but a living faith, as fruits of a good tree.
2. We believe, teach, and confess also that good works should be entirely
excluded, just as well in the question concerning salvation as in the article of justification before
God, as the apostle testifies with clear words, when he writes as follows: Even as David also describeth
the blessedness of the man unto whom God imputeth righteousness without works, saying, Blessed is the
man to whom the Lord will not impute sin, Rom. 4:6ff. And again: By grace are ye saved through faith;
and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God; not of works, lest any man should boast, Eph. 2:8-9.
3. We believe, teach, and confess also that all men, but those especially
who are born again and renewed by the Holy Ghost, are bound to do good works.
4. In this sense the words necessary, shall, and must are employed correctly
and in a Christian manner also with respect to the regenerate, and in no way are contrary to the form
of sound words and speech.
5. Nevertheless, by the words mentioned, necessitas, necessarium, necessity
and necessary, if they be employed concerning the regenerate, not coercion, but only due obedience
is to be understood, which the truly believing, so far as they are regenerate, render not from coercion
or the driving of the Law, but from a voluntary spirit; because they are no more under the Law, but
under grace, Rom. 6:14; 7:6; 8:14.
6. Accordingly, we also believe, teach, and confess that when it is said:
The regenerate do good works from a free spirit, this is not to be understood as though it is at
the option of the regenerate man to do or to forbear doing good when he wishes, and that he can
nevertheless retain faith if he intentionally perseveres in sins.
7. Yet this is not to be understood otherwise than as the Lord Christ and His
apostles themselves declare, namely, regarding the liberated spirit, that it does not do this from
fear of punishment, like a servant, but from love of righteousness, like children, Rom. 8:15.
8. Although this voluntariness [liberty of spirit] in the elect children of
God is not perfect, but burdened with great weakness, as St. Paul complains concerning himself, Rom.
7:14-25; Gal. 5:17.
9. Nevertheless, for the sake of the Lord Christ, the Lord does not impute
this weakness to His elect, as it is written: There is therefore now no condemnation to them which
are in Christ Jesus, Rom. 8:1.
10. We believe, teach, and confess also that not works maintain faith and
salvation in us, but the Spirit of God alone, through faith, of whose presence and indwelling good
works are evidences.
Negative Theses. False Contrary Doctrine.
1. Accordingly, we reject and condemn the following modes of speaking: when
it is taught and written that good works are necessary to salvation; also, that no one ever has been
saved without good works; also, that it is impossible to be saved without good works.
2. We reject and condemn as offensive and detrimental to Christian discipline
the bare expression, when it is said: Good works are injurious to salvation.
For especially in these last times it is no less needful to admonish men to Christian
discipline [to the way of living aright and godly] and good works, and remind them how necessary it
is that they exercise themselves in good works as a declaration of their faith and gratitude to God,
than that the works be not mingled in the article of justification; because men may be damned by an
Epicurean delusion concerning faith, as well as by papistic and Pharisaic confidence in their own
works and merits.
3. We also reject and condemn the dogma that faith and the indwelling of the
Holy Ghost are not lost by wilful sin, but that the saints and elect retain the Holy Ghost even though
they fall into adultery and other sins and persist therein.
V. Law and Gospel
STATUS CONTROVERSIAE. The Principal Question In This Controversy.
Whether the preaching of the Holy Gospel is properly not only a preaching of grace, which announces
the forgiveness of sins, but also a preaching of repentance and reproof, rebuking unbelief, which,
they say, is rebuked not in the Law, but alone through the Gospel.
Affirmative Theses. Pure Doctrine of God's Word.
1. We believe, teach, and confess that the distinction between the Law and the
Gospel is to be maintained in the Church with great diligence as an especially brilliant light, by
which, according to the admonition of St. Paul, the Word of God is rightly divided.
2. We believe, teach, and confess that the Law is properly a divine doctrine,
which teaches what is right and pleasing to God, and reproves everything that is sin and contrary to
3. For this reason, then, everything that reproves sin is, and belongs to,
the preaching of the Law.
4. But the Gospel is properly such a doctrine as teaches what man who has
not observed the Law, and therefore is condemned by it, is to believe, namely, that Christ has expiated
and made satisfaction for all sins, and has obtained and acquired for him, without any merit of his
[no merit of the sinner intervening], forgiveness of sins, righteousness that avails before God, and
5. But since the term Gospel is not used in one and the same sense in the
Holy Scriptures, on account of which this dissension originally arose, we believe, teach, and confess
that if by the term Gospel is understood the entire doctrine of Christ which He proposed in His ministry,
as also did His apostles (in which sense it is employed, Mark 1:15; Acts 20:21), it is correctly said
and written that the Gospel is a preaching of repentance and of the forgiveness of sins.
6. But if the Law and the Gospel, likewise also Moses himself [as] a teacher
of the Law and Christ as a preacher of the Gospel are contrasted with one another, we believe, teach,
and confess that the Gospel is not a preaching of repentance or reproof, but properly nothing else
than a preaching of consolation, and a joyful message which does not reprove or terrify, but comforts
consciences against the terrors of the Law, points alone to the merit of Christ, and raises them up
again by the lovely preaching of the grace and favor of God, obtained through Christ's merit.
7. As to the revelation of sin, because the veil of Moses hangs before the
eyes of all men as long as they hear the bare preaching of the Law, and nothing concerning Christ,
and therefore do not learn from the Law to perceive their sins aright, but either become presumptuous
hypocrites [who swell with the opinion of their own righteousness] as the Pharisees, or despair like
Judas, Christ takes the Law into His hands, and explains it spiritually, Matt. 5:21ff ; Rom. 7:14.
And thus the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all sinners [Rom. 1:18], how great it is;
by this means they are directed [sent back] to the Law, and then first learn from it to know aright
their sins-a knowledge which Moses never could have forced out of them.
Accordingly, although the preaching of the suffering and death of Christ, the Son
of God, is an earnest and terrible proclamation and declaration of God's wrath, whereby men are first
led into the Law aright, after the veil of Moses has been removed from them, so that they first know
aright how great things God in His Law requires of us, none of which we can observe, and therefore
are to seek all our righteousness in Christ.
8. Yet as long as all this (namely, Christ's suffering and death) proclaims
God's wrath and terrifies man, it is still not properly the preaching of the Gospel, but the preaching
of Moses and the Law, and therefore a foreign work of Christ, by which He arrives at His proper office,
that is, to preach grace, console, and quicken, which is properly the preaching of the Gospel.
Negative Theses. Contrary Doctrine which is Rejected.
Accordingly we reject and regard as incorrect and injurious the dogma that the Gospel is properly
a preaching of repentance or reproof, and not alone a preaching of grace; for thereby the Gospel is
again converted into a doctrine of the Law, the merit of Christ and Holy Scripture are obscured, Christians
robbed of true consolation, and the door is opened again to [the errors and superstitions of] the Papacy.
VI. The Third Use of the Law.
STATUS CONTROVERSIAE. The Principal Question In This Controversy.
Since the Law was given to men for three reasons: first, that thereby outward discipline might be
maintained against wild, disobedient men [and that wild and intractable men might be restrained, as
though by certain bars]; secondly, that men thereby may be led to the knowledge of their sins; thirdly,
that after they are regenerate and [much of] the flesh notwithstanding cleaves to them, they might
on this account have a fixed rule according to which they are to regulate and direct their whole life,
a dissension has occurred between some few theologians concerning the third use of the Law, namely,
whether it is to be urged or not upon regenerate Christians. The one side has said, Yea; the other, Nay.
Affirmative Theses. The True Christian Doctrine concerning This Controversy.
1. We believe, teach, and confess that, although men truly believing [in
Christ] and truly converted to God have been freed and exempted from the curse and coercion of the
Law, they nevertheless are not on this account without Law, but have been redeemed by the Son of God
in order that they should exercise themselves in it day and night [that they should meditate upon God's
Law day and night, and constantly exercise themselves in its observance, Ps. 1:2], Ps. 119. For even
our first parents before the Fall did not live without Law, who had the Law of God written also into
their hearts, because they were created in the image of God, Gen. 1:26f.; 2:16ff; 3: 3.
2. We believe, teach, and confess that the preaching of the Law is to be urged
with diligence, not only upon the unbelieving and impenitent, but also upon true believers, who are
truly converted, regenerate, and justified by faith.
3. For although they are regenerate and renewed in the spirit of their mind,
yet in the present life this regeneration and renewal is not complete, but only begun, and believers
are, by the spirit of their mind, in a constant struggle against the flesh, that is, against the corrupt
nature and disposition which cleaves to us unto death. On account of this old Adam, which still inheres
in the understanding, the will, and all the powers of man, it is needful that the Law of the Lord always
shine before them, in order that they may not from human devotion institute wanton and self-elected
cults [that they may frame nothing in a matter of religion from the desire of private devotion, and
may not choose divine services not instituted by God's Word]; likewise, that the old Adam also may not
employ his own will, but may be subdued against his will, not only by the admonition and threatening
of the Law, but also by punishments and blows, so that he may follow and surrender himself captive to
the Spirit, 1 Cor. 9:27; Rom. 6:12, Gal. 6:14; Ps. 119:1ff ; Heb. 13:21 (Heb. 12:1).
4. Now, as regards the distinction between the works of the Law and the fruits
of the Spirit, we believe, teach, and confess that the works which are done according to the Law are
and are called works of the Law as long as they are only extorted from man by urging the punishment
and threatening of God's wrath.
5. Fruits of the Spirit, however, are the works which the Spirit of God who
dwells in believers works through the regenerate, and which are done by believers so far as they are
regenerate [spontaneously and freely], as though they knew of no command, threat, or reward; for in
this manner the children of God live in the Law and walk according to the Law of God, which [mode
of living] St. Paul in his epistles calls the Law of Christ and the Law of the mind, Rom. 7:25; 8:7;
Rom. 8:2; Gal. 6:2.
6. Thus the Law is and remains both to the penitent and impenitent, both to
regenerate and unregenerate men, one [and the same] Law, namely, the immutable will of God; and the
difference, so far as concerns obedience, is alone in man, inasmuch as one who is not yet regenerate
does for the Law out of constraint and unwillingly what it requires of him (as also the regenerate
do according to the flesh); but the believer, so far as he is regenerate, does without constraint
and with a willing spirit that which no threatenings [however severe] of the Law could ever extort
Negative Theses. False Contrary Doctrine.
Accordingly, we reject as a dogma and error injurious to, and conflicting with, Christian discipline
and true godliness the teaching that the Law in the above-mentioned way and degree is not to be urged
upon Christians and true believers, but only upon unbelievers, non-Christians, and the impenitent.
VII. The Lord's Supper.
Although the Zwinglian teachers are not to be reckoned among the theologians who affiliate with
[acknowledge and profess] the Augsburg Confession, as they separated from them at the very time when
this Confession was presented, nevertheless, since they are intruding themselves (into their assembly],
and are attempting, under the name of this Christian Confession, to spread their error, we intend also
to make a needful statement [we have judged that the Church of Christ should be instructed also]
concerning this controversy.
STATUS CONTROVERSIAE. Chief Controversy between Our Doctrine and That of the Sacramentarians regarding
Whether in the Holy Supper the true body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ are truly and essentially
present, are distributed with the bread and wine, and received with the mouth by all those who use this
Sacrament, whether they be worthy or unworthy, godly or ungodly, believing or unbelieving; by the
believing for consolation and life, by the unbelieving for judgment? The Sacramentarians say, No; we
For the explanation of this controversy it is to be noted in the beginning that there are two kinds
of Sacramentarians. Some are gross Sacramentarians, who declare in plain (deutschen), clear words as
they believe in their hearts, that in the Holy Supper nothing but bread and wine is present, and distributed
and received with the mouth.
Others, however, are subtle Sacramentarians, and the most injurious of all, who partly speak very
speciously in our own words, and pretend that they also believe a true presence of the true, essential,
living body and blood of Christ in the Holy Supper, however, that this occurs spiritually through faith.
Nevertheless they retain under these specious words precisely the former gross opinion, namely, that in
the Holy Supper nothing is present and received with the mouth except bread and wine. For with them
the word spiritually means nothing else than the Spirit of Christ or the power of the absent body of
Christ and His merit, which is present; but the body of Christ is in no mode or way present, except
only above in the highest heaven, to which we should elevate ourselves into heaven by the thoughts
of our faith, and there, not at all, however, in the bread and wine of the Holy Supper, should seek
this body and blood [of Christ].
Affirmative Theses. Confession of the Pure Doctrine concerning the Holy Supper against the
1. We believe, teach, and confess that in the Holy Supper the body and blood
of Christ are truly and essentially present, and are truly distributed and received with the bread
2. We believe, teach, and confess that the words of the testament of Christ
are not to be understood otherwise than as they read, according to the letter, so that the bread does
not signify the absent body and the wine the absent blood of Christ, but that, on account of the sacramental
union, they [the bread and wine] are truly the body and blood of Christ.
3. Now, as to the consecration, we believe, teach, and confess that no work
of man or recitation of the minister [of the church] produces this presence of the body and blood of
Christ in the Holy Supper, but that this is to be ascribed only and alone to the almighty power of
our Lord Jesus Christ.
4. But at the same time we also believe, teach, and confess unanimously that
in the use of the Holy Supper the words of the institution of Christ should in no way be omitted, but
should be publicly recited, as it is written 1 Cor. 10:16: The cup of blessing which we bless, etc.
This blessing occurs through the recitation of the words of Christ.
5. The grounds, however, on which we stand against the Sacramentarians in
this matter are those which Dr. Luther has laid down in his Large Confession concerning the Lord's Supper.
The first is this article of our Christian faith: Jesus Christ is true, essential,
natural, perfect God and man in one person, undivided and inseparable.
The second: That God's right hand is everywhere; at which Christ is placed in deed
and in truth according to His human nature, [and therefore] being present, rules, and has in His hands
and beneath His feet everything that is in heaven and on earth [as Scripture says, Eph. 1:22], where
no man else, nor angel, but only the Son of Mary is placed; hence He can do this [those things which
we have said].
The third: That God's Word is not false, and does not deceive.
The fourth: That God has and knows of various modes of being in any place, and not
only the one [is not bound to the one] which philosophers call localis (local) for circumscribed].
6. We believe, teach, and confess that the body and blood of Christ are received
with the bread and wine, not only spiritually by faith, but also orally; yet not in a Capernaitic,
but in a supernatural, heavenly mode, because of the sacramental union; as the words of Christ clearly
show, when Christ gives direction to take, eat, and drink, as was also done by the apostles; for it
is written Mark 14:23: And they all drank of it. St. Paul likewise says, 1 Cor. 10:16: The bread which
we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? That is: He who eats this bread eats the body
of Christ, which also the chief ancient teachers of the Church, Chrysostom, Cyprian, Leo I, Gregory,
Ambrose, Augustine, unanimously testify.
7. We believe, teach, and confess that not only the true believers [in Christ]
and the worthy, but also the unworthy and unbelievers, receive the true body and blood of Christ;
however, not for life and consolation, but for judgment and condemnation, if they are not converted
and do not repent, 1 Cor. 11:27-29.
For although they thrust Christ from themselves as a Savior, yet they must admit Him
even against their will as a strict Judge, who is just as present also to exercise and render judgment
upon impenitent guests as He is present to work life and consolation in the hearts of the true believers
and worthy guests.
8. We believe, teach, and confess also that there is only one kind of unworthy
guests, namely, those who do not believe, concerning whom it is written John 3:18: He that believeth not is
condemned already. And this judgment becomes greater and more grievous, being aggravated, by the unworthy
use of the Holy Supper, 1 Cor. 11:29.
9. We believe, teach, and confess that no true believer, as long as he retains
living faith, however weak he may be, receives the Holy Supper to his judgment, which was instituted
especially for Christians weak in faith, yet penitent, for the consolation and strengthening of their
weak faith [Matt. 9:12; 11:5-28].
10. We believe, teach, and confess that all the worthiness of the guests of
this heavenly feast is and consists in the most holy obedience and perfect merit of Christ alone,
which we appropriate to ourselves by true faith, and whereof [of the application of this merit] we
are assured by the Sacrament, and not at all in [but in nowise does this worthiness depend upon] our
virtues or inward and outward preparations.
Negative Theses. Contrary, Condemned Doctrines of the Sacramentarians.
On the other hand, we unanimously reject and condemn all the following erroneous articles, which
are opposed and contrary to the doctrine presented above, the simple faith, and the [pure] confession
concerning the Lord's Supper;
1. The papistic transubstantiation, when it is taught in the Papacy that in
the Holy Supper the bread and wine lose their substance and natural essence, and are thus annihilated;
that they are changed into the body of Christ, and the outward form alone remains.
2. The papistic sacrifice of the Mass for the sins of the living and the dead.
3. That [the sacrilege whereby] to laymen one form only of the Sacrament is
given, and, contrary to the plain words of the testament of Christ, the cup is withheld from them,
and they are [thus] deprived of His blood.
4. When it is taught that the words of the testament of Christ must not be
understood or believed simply as they read, but that they are obscure expressions, whose meaning must
be sought first in other passages of Scripture.
5. That in the Holy Supper the body of Christ is not received orally with the
bread; but that with the mouth only bread and wine are received, the body of Christ, however, only
spiritually by faith.
6. That the bread and wine in the Holy Supper are nothing more than [symbols
or] tokens by which Christians recognize one another.
7. That the bread and wine are only figures, similitudes, and representations
of the far absent body and blood of Christ.
8. That the bread and wine are no more than a memorial, seal, and pledge,
through which we are assured that when faith elevates itself to heaven, it there becomes partaker of
the body and blood of Christ as truly as we eat bread and drink wine in the Supper.
9. That the assurance and confirmation of our faith [concerning salvation]
in the Holy Supper occur through the external signs of bread and wine alone, and not through the true,
[verily] present body and blood of Christ.
10. That in the Holy Supper only the power, efficacy, and merit of the absent
body and blood of Christ are distributed.
11. That the body of Christ is so enclosed in heaven that it can in no way be
at once and at one time in many or all places upon earth where His Holy Supper is celebrated.
12. That Christ has not promised, neither could have effected, the essential
presence of His body and blood in the Holy Supper, because the nature and property of His assumed human
nature cannot suffer nor permit it.
13. That God, according to [even by] all His omnipotence (which is dreadful
to hear), is not able to cause His body to be essentially present in more than one place at one time.
14. That not the omnipotent words of Christ's testament, but faith, produces
and makes [is the cause of] the presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Holy Supper.
15. That believers must not seek the body [and blood] of Christ in the bread
and wine of the Holy Supper, but raise their eyes from the bread to heaven and there seek the body
16. That unbelieving, impenitent Christians do not receive the true body and
blood of Christ in the Holy Supper, but only bread and wine.
17. That the worthiness of the guests at this heavenly meal consists not alone
in true faith in Christ, but also in the external preparation of men.
18. That even the true believers, who have and retain a true, living, pure
faith in Christ, can receive this Sacrament to their judgment, because they are still imperfect in
their outward life.
19. That the external visible elements of the bread and wine should be adored
in the Holy Sacrament.
20. Likewise, we consign also to the just judgment of God all presumptuous,
frivolous, blasphemous questions (which decency forbids to mention) and [other] expressions, which
most blasphemously and with great offense [to the Church] are proposed by the Sacramentarians in a
gross, carnal, Capernaitic way concerning the supernatural, heavenly mysteries of this Sacrament.
21. Hence we hereby utterly [reject and] condemn the Capernaitic eating of
the body of Christ, as though [we taught that] His flesh were rent with the teeth, and digested like
other food, which the Sacramentarians, against the testimony of their conscience, after all our frequent
protests, wilfully force upon us, and in this way make our doctrine odious to their hearers; and on
the other hand, we maintain and believe, according to the simple words of the testament of Christ,
the true, yet supernatural eating of the body of Christ, as also the drinking of His blood, which
human senses and reason do not comprehend, but as in all other articles of faith our reason is brought
into captivity to the obedience of Christ, and this mystery is not apprehended otherwise than by faith
alone, and revealed in the Word alone.