Because it is associated with "election" and "foreknowledge", the definition for the term "predestine" has been confusing and challenging to understand.
Some understand "predestine" as synonymous to "foreknow". To begin the process of clarification, the relationship of these three terms can be seen in the
following two verses:
To those who reside as aliens, scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, who are chosen according
to the foreknowledge of God the Father, by the sanctifying work of the Spirit, to obey Jesus Christ and be sprinkled with His blood: May grace and
peace be yours in the fullest measure (1 Pet 1:1-2).
For those whom He foreknew, He also predestined to become conformed to the image of His Son, so that He would be the
firstborn among many brethren; (Rom 8:29)
These examples establish the fact that God elects and predestines based on His foreknowledge; foreknowledge governs God's elective work.
The verb "predestine" comes from the Greek term "prohorizō," which is the compound of "pro" and "horizō." Grammatically, the verb "prohorizō" is used in
the aorist tense which indicates a definite event that will occur at some future time. The active voice portrays God as initiating this action.
"Pro" means "in front" in a spatial sense or "before" in a temporal sense.
"Horizō" means "to determine or ordain" or "to appoint."
Combined as "prohorizō," the meaning of "decide upon beforehand, foreordain" or "pre-appoint" is derived. Through the influence of Jerome, who is largely
responsible for the Latin Vulgate, "prohorizō" developed a sense of "destiny" which led to the English translation of "predestine."
The Greek verb "prohorizō" is very rare and is not even found in the Septuagint (Greek Old Testament).
Found once in classical Greek literature by Demosthenes, before the New Testament, "prohorizō" is used to mean "lay claim" in a contractual
dispute of property and money. Other extrabiblical uses include the idea of laying claim of a day as in "appointing" a day for a wedding before it occurred.
More detailed studies of "horizō" indicate its original meaning as "setting a boundary" as seen in the Old Testament
(Num 34:6; Josh 13:27;
15:12; 18:20). Its cognate compound "aphorizō" provides
the Hebrew meaning "to separate" (Gen 10:5; Deut 4:41;
Lev 13:4) and when referring to the gospel, it means "to mark or appoint one for God's service"
(Acts 13:2; Rom 1:1;
From these linguistic studies, instead of "predestine," "prohorizō" is more accurately understood as "pre-appoint" or "determine beforehand." Thus,
foreknowledge governs God's elective work and pre-appointment / predetermination.
"do what your power and plan had already determined beforehand should happen." (Acts 4:28
[Complete Jewish Bible])
In Acts 4:25-26, quoting from Psalm 2:1-2,
the apostles understood the opposition to Christ as a fulfillment of this Messianic prophecy. The characters of this Old Testament prophecy were identified
as contemporaries of the apostles: "Nations" as Gentiles, "peoples" as people of Israel, "kings" as Herod and "rulers" as Pontius Pilate. Since this prophecy
occurred a thousand years before the time of Christ, the apostles saw its fulfillment as evidence of God's sovereign power and will; divine prophecy revealed
what was predetermined to occur at its appointed time.
It is worthwhile to note that the events that God "determined beforehand" did not simply involve Believers; it included non-Believers who
played an important role in the events leading up to the Crucifixion. The use of "determined beforehand" describes the certainty of God's sequence of election,
timing and outcome.
"Furthermore, we know that God causes everything to work together for the good of those who love God and are called in accordance
with His purpose; because those whom He knew in advance, He also determined in advance would be conformed to the pattern of His Son, so that He might
be the firstborn among many brothers; and those whom He thus determined in advance, He also called; and those whom He called, He also caused to be
considered righteous; and those whom He caused to be considered righteous He also glorified!" (Rom 8:28-30
[Complete Jewish Bible])
In Romans 8:29 Paul reveals the certainty of complete sanctification by revealing the
process of being made holy. By divine foreknowledge and choice, a Believer is predetermined to become like Jesus Christ.
Many consider this the sequence of salvation: a) those who He knew in advance (foreknowledge), b) He determined in advance, c) He called,
d) He also considered righteous (justified), and e) He glorified. While faith may appear to be excluded in this sequence and assumed to be given by God, the
whole context of Romans is about justification by one's personal decision of faith alone (Rom 3:21-31;
4:1-25; 5:1-21) and sanctification by one's personal
faith (Rom 6:1-23; 7:1-25;
"Instead we speak the wisdom of God, hidden in a mystery, that God determined before the ages for our glory."
(1 Cor 2:7)
The wisdom Paul speaks of, a "mystery" or "hidden" to principally Jews but including all non-Believers, is God's plan of salvation through
Jesus Christ (Matt 11:25; Rom 16:25-26). Based on God's
grace and received through faith alone, it meant the ultimate glorification of Believers. Paul affirms God's omniscience that by using evil men to crucify
Jesus, atonement was accomplished and fulfilled God's sovereign plan of salvation that was determined before the ages.
"He determined in advance that through Yeshua the Messiah we would be His sons — in keeping with His pleasure and purpose
— so that we would bring Him praise commensurate with the glory of the grace He gave us through the Beloved One. In union with Him, through the shedding of
His blood, we are set free — our sins are forgiven; this accords with the wealth of the grace He has lavished on us. In all His wisdom and insight He has
made known to us His secret plan, which by His own will He designed beforehand in connection with the Messiah and will put into effect when the time is ripe
— His plan to place everything in heaven and on earth under the Messiah's headship. Also in union with Him we were given an inheritance, we who were picked
in advance according to the purpose of the One who effects everything in keeping with the decision of His will,"
(Eph 1:5-11 [Complete Jewish Bible])
In his letter to the Ephesians, Paul affirms the blessing of being a Believer regardless of ethnicity (Jew or Gentile). Believers are
pre-appointed to adoption as God's sons. And because of Christ, Believers have received an inheritance which was already predetermined according
to God's plan and purpose for Believers.
Paul uses the Greek verb "prohorizō" to demonstrate God's sovereignty and foreknowledge and provides a hope to Believers about their future.
In accordance to God's foreknowledge, often revealed in prophecy, God elects and pre-appoints / predetermines people, nations and events
according to His unfolding plan of salvation through Jesus Christ.
And the God's plan is not yet complete until the Kingdom of God arrives and consummates the adoption of His holy people as His children.
For those who are obedient to His word, God will make them His own possession and predestines them to be a kingdom of priests and holy
nation (Ex 19:4-6).
For those who believe and place their trust in the resurrection and life of Jesus Christ, God predestines them to an everlasting life
For those who do not believe in the above, God predestines them to a place where sin is removed from His presence
Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth; for the first heaven and the first earth passed away, and there is no longer any sea. And I
saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. And I heard a loud voice from the throne,
saying, "Behold, the tabernacle of God is among the people, and He will dwell among them, and they shall be His people, and God Himself will be among them,
and He will wipe away every tear from their eyes; and there will no longer be any death; there will no longer be any mourning, or crying, or pain; the first
things have passed away."
And He who sits on the throne said, "Behold, I am making all things new." And He said, "Write, for these words are
faithful and true." Then He said to me, "It is done. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end. I will give water to the one who thirsts from
the spring of the water of life, without cost. The one who overcomes will inherit these things, and I will be his God and he will be My son. But for the
cowardly, and unbelieving, and abominable, and murderers, and sexually immoral persons, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, their part will be in the
lake that burns with fire and brimstone, which is the second death." (Rev 21:1-8).
1. Vine WE, Vine's Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words, London: Oliphants Ltd. (1981).
2. Brown C, ed., The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, vol. 1, Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, (1979).
3. Gaebelein F, ed., The Expositor's Bible Commentary, vols. 9-11, Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, (1992).
4. Walvoord JF and Zuck, RB, eds., The Bible Knowledge Commentary, Wheaton: Victor Books, (1983).
5. Olson CG, Getting the Gospel Right, New Jersey: Global Gospel Publishers (2005).