The title of this work defines its purpose. Written primarily by expositors for expositors,
it aims to provide preachers, teachers, and students of the Bible with a new and comprehensive commentary
on the books of the Old and New Testaments. Its stance is that of a scholarly evangelicalism committed to
the divine inspiration, complete trustworthiness, and full authority of the Bible. Its seventy-eight
contributors come from the United States, Canada, England, Scotland, Australia, New Zealand, and Switzerland,
and from various religious groups, including Anglican, Baptist, Brethren, Free, Independent, Methodist,
Nazarene, Presbyterian, and Reformed churches. Most of them teach at colleges, universities, or theological
No book has been more closely studied over a longer period of time that the Bible. From the
Midrashic commentaries going back to the period of Ezra, through parts of the Dead Sea Scrolls and the
Patristic literature, and on to the present, the Scriptures have been expounded. Indeed, there have been
times when, as in the Reformation and on occasions since then, exposition has been at the cutting edge of
Christian advance. Luther was a powerful exegete, and Calvin is still called "the prince of
Their successors have been many. And now, when the outburst of new translations and their
unparalleled circulation have expanded the readership of the Bible, the need for exposition takes on fresh
Not that God's Word can ever become captive to its expositors. Among all other books, it
stand first in its combination of perspicuity and profundity. Though a child can be made "wise for
salvation" by believing its witness to Christ, the greatest mind cannot plumb the depths of its
truth (2 Tim. 3:15: Rom. 11:33). As Gregory the Great said, "Holy Scripture is a stream of running
water, where alike the elephant may swim, and the lamb walk." So, because of the inexhaustible nature
of Scripture, the task of opening up its meaning is still a perennial obligation of biblical scholarship.
How that task is done inevitably reflects the outlook of those engaged in it. Every Bible
scholar has presuppositions. To this neither the editors of these volumes nor the contributors to them
are exceptions. They share a common commitment to the supernatural Christianity set forth in the inspired
Word. Their purpose is not to supplant the many valuable commentaries that have preceded this work and from
which both the editors and contributors have learned. It is rather to draw on the resources of contemporary
evangelical scholarship in producing a new reference work for understanding the Scriptures.
A commentary that will continue to be useful through the years should handle contemporary
trends in biblical studies in such a way as to avoid becoming outdated when critical fashions change.
Biblical criticism is not in itself inadmissible, as some have mistakenly thought. When scholars investigate
the authorship, date, literary characteristics, and purpose of a biblical document, they are practicing
biblical criticism. So also when, in order to ascertain as nearly as possible the original form of the
text, they deal with variant readings, scribal errors, emendations, and other phenomena in the manuscript.
To do these things inessential to responsible exegesis and exposition. And always there is the need
to distinguish hypothesis from fact, conjecture from truth.
The chief principle of interpretation followed in this commentary is the grammatico-historical
one-namely, that the primary aim of the exegete is to make clear the meaning of the text at the time and
in the circumstances of its writing. This endeavor to understand what in the first instance the inspired
writers actually said must not be confused with an inflexible literalism. Scripture makes lavish use of
symbols and figures of speech; great portions of it are poetical. Yet when it speaks in this way, it
speaks no less truly than it does in its historical and doctrinal portions. To understand its message
requires attention to matters of grammar and syntax, word meanings, idioms, and literary forms-all in
relation to the historical and cultural setting of the text.
The contributors to this work necessarily reflect varying convictions. In certain
controversial matters the policy is that of clear statement of the contributors' own views followed
by fair presentation of other ones. The treatment of eschatology, though it reflects differences of
interpretation, is consistent with a general premillennial position (not all contributors, however,
are premillennial). But prophecy is more than prediction, and so this commentary gives due recognition
to the major lode of godly social concern in the prophetic writings.
The Expositor's Bible Commentary is presented as a scholarly work, though not
primarily one of technical criticism. In its main portion, the Exposition, and in Volume 1 (General
and Special Articles), all Semitic and Greek words are transliterated and the English equivalents given.
As for the Notes, here Semitic and Greek characters are used but always with transliterations and English
meanings, so that this portion of the commentary will be as accessible as possible to readers unacquainted
with the original languages.
It is the conviction of the general editor, shared by his colleagues in the Zondervan
editorial department, that in writing about the Bible, lucidity is not incompatible with scholarship.
They are therefore endeavoring to make this a clear and understandable work.
The translation used in it is the New International Version (North American Edition).
To the International Bible Society thanks are due for permission to use this most recent of the major
Bible translations. It was chosen because of the clarity and beauty of its style and its faithfulness
to the original texts.
To the associate editor, Richard P. Polcyn, and to the contributing editors-Dr. Walter C.
Kaiser, Jr., Dr. Bruce K. Waltke, and Dr. Ralph H. Alexander for the Old Testament, and Dr. James
Montgomery Boice and Dr. Merrill C. Tenney for the New Testament-the general editor expresses his
gratitude for their unfailing cooperation and their generosity in advising him out of their expert
scholarship. And to the many other contributors he is indebted for their invaluable part in this work.
Finally, he owes a special debt of gratitude to Dr. Robert K. DeVries, publisher, The Zondervan Corporation,
and Miss Elizabeth Brown, secretary, for their assistance and encouragement.
Whatever else it is- the greatest and most beautiful of books, the primary source of law
and morality, the fountain of wisdom and the infallible guide to life-the Bible is above all the
inspired witness to Jesus Christ. May this work fulfill its function of expounding the Scriptures
with grace and clarity, so that its users may find that both Old and New Testaments do indeed lead to
our Lord Jesus Christ, who alone could say, "I have come that they may have life, and have it
to the full" (John 10:10).