In the preface to the 1611 edition, the translators of the Authorized Version, known
popularly as the King James Bible, state that it was not their purpose "to make a new
translation...but to make a good one better." Indebted to the earlier work of William Tyndale
and others, they saw their best contribution to consist in revising and enhancing the excellence of
the English versions which had sprung from the Reformation of the sixteenth century. In harmony with
the purpose of the King James scholars, the translators and editors of the present work have not
pursued a goal of innovation. They have perceived the Holy Bible, New King James Version, as a
continuation of the labors of the earlier translators, thus unlocking for today’s readers the spiritual
treasures found especially in the Authorized Version of the Holy Scriptures.
A Living Legacy
For nearly four hundred years, and throughout several revisions of its English form,
the King James Bible has been deeply revered among the English-speaking peoples of the world. The
precision of translation of which it is historically renowned, and its majesty of style, have enabled
that monumental version of the Word of God to become the mainspring of the religion, language, and
legal foundations of our civilization.
Although the Elizabethan period and our own era share in zeal for technical advance,
the former period was more aggressively devoted to classical learning. Along with this awakened concern
for the classics came a flourishing companion in interest in the Scriptures, an interest that was
enlivened by the conviction that the manuscripts were providentially handed down and were a trustworthy
record of the inspired Word of God. The King James translators were committed to producing an English
Bible that would be a precise translation, and by no means a paraphrase or a broadly approximate rendering.
On the one hand, the scholars were almost as familiar with the original languages of the Bible as with
their native English. On the other hand, their reverence for the divine Author and His Word assured a
translation of the Scriptures in which only a principle of utmost accuracy could be accepted.
In 1786 Catholic scholar Alexander Geddes said of the King James Bible, "If
accuracy and strictest attention to the letter of the text be supposed to constitute an excellent version,
this is of all versions the most excellent." George Bernard Shaw became a literary legend in our
century because of his severe and often humorous criticisms of our most cherished values. Surprisingly,
however, Shaw pays the following tribute to the scholars commissioned by King James: "The translation
was extraordinarily well done because to the translators what they were translating was not merely a
curious collection of ancient books written by different authors in different stages of culture, but
the Word of God divinely revealed through His chosen and expressly inspired scribes. In this conviction
they carried out their work with boundless reverence and care and achieved a beautifully artistic
result." History agrees with these estimates. Therefore, while seeking to unveil the excellent
form of the traditional English Bible, special care has also been taken in the present edition to
preserve the work of precision which is the legacy of the 1611 translators.
Complete Equivalence in Translation
Where new translation has been necessary in the New King James Version, the most complete
representation of the original has been rendered by considering the history of usage and etymology of
words in their contexts. This principle of complete equivalence seeks to preserve all of the
information in the text, while presenting it in good literary form. Dynamic equivalence, a recent
procedure in Bible translation, commonly results in paraphrasing where a more literal rendering is
needed to reflect a specific and vital sense. For example, complete equivalence truly renders the original
text in expressions such as "lifted her voice and wept" (Gen 21:16); "I gave you cleanness
of teeth" (Amos 4:6); "Jesus met them, saying ‘Rejoice!’" (Matt 28:9); and "Woman,
what does your concern have to do with Me?" (John 2:4). Complete equivalence translates fully, in
order to provide an English text that is both accurate and readable.
In keeping with the principle of complete equivalence, it is the policy to translate
interjections which are commonly omitted in modern language renderings of the Bible. As an example,
the interjection behold, in the older King James editions, continues to have a place in English
usage, especially in dramatically calling attention to a spectacular scene, or an event of profound
importance such as the Immanuel prophecy of Isaiah 7:14. Consequently, behold is retained for
these occasions in the present edition. However, the Hebrew and Greek originals for this word can be
translated variously, depending on the circumstances in the passage. Therefore, in addition to behold,
words such as indeed, look, see, and surely are also rendered to convey
the appropriate sense suggested by the context in each case.
In faithfulness to God and to our readers, it was deemed appropriate that all participating
scholars sign a statement affirming their belief in the verbal and plenary inspiration of Scripture;
and in the inerrancy of the original autographs.
The King James scholars readily appreciated the intrinsic beauty of divine revelation.
They accordingly disciplined their talents to render well-chosen English words of their time, as well
as a graceful, often musical arrangement of language, which has stirred the hearts of Bible readers
through the years. The translators, the committees, and the editors of the present edition, while sensitive
to the late-twentieth-century English idiom, and while adhering faithfully to the Hebrew, Aramaic, and
Greek texts, have sought to maintain those lyrical and devotional qualities that are so highly regarded
in the Authorized Version. This devotional quality is especially apparent in the poetic and prophetic
books, although even the relatively plain style of the Gospels and Epistles cannot strictly be likened,
as sometimes suggested, to modern newspaper style. The Koine Greek of the New Testament is influenced by
the Hebrew background of the writers, for whom even the gospel narratives were not merely flat utterance,
but often song in various degrees of rhythm.
Students of the Bible applaud the timeless devotional character of our historic Bible.
Yet it is also universally understood that our language, like all living languages, has undergone profound
change since 1611. Subsequent revisions of the King James Bible have sought to keep abreast of changes
in English speech. The present work is a further step toward this objective. Where obsolescence and other
reading difficulties exist, present-day vocabulary, punctuation, and grammar have been carefully integrated.
Words representing ancient objects, such as chariot and phylactery, have no modern substitutes
and are therefore retained.
A special feature of the New King James Version is its conformity to the thought flow of
the 1611 Bible. The reader discovers that the sequence and selection of words, phrases, and clauses of
the new edition, while much clearer, are so close to the traditional that there is remarkable ease in
listening to the reading of either edition while following with the other.
In the discipline of translating biblical and other ancient languages, a standard method
of transliteration, that is, the English spelling of untranslated words, such as names of persons and
places, has never been commonly adopted. In keeping with the design of the present work, the King James
spelling of untranslated words is retained, although made uniform throughout. For example, instead of
the spellings Isaiah and Elijah in the Old Testament, and Esaias and Elias
in the New Testament, Isaiah and Elijah now appear in both Testaments.
King James doctrinal and theological terms, for example, propitiation,
justification, and sanctification, are generally familiar to English-speaking peoples. Such
terms have been retained except where the original language indicates need for a more precise translation.
Readers of the Authorized Version will immediately be struck by the absence of several
pronouns: thee, thou, and ye are replaced by the simple you, while your
and yours are substituted for thy and thine as applicable. Thee, thou, thy
and thine were once forms of address to express a special relationship to human as well as divine
persons. These pronouns are no longer part of our language. However, reverence for God in the present
work is preserved by capitalizing pronouns including You, Your, and Yours, which refer to
Him. Additionally, capitalization of these pronouns benefits the reader by clearly distinguishing divine
and human persons referred to in a passage. Without such capitalization the distinction is often obscure,
because the antecedent of a pronoun is not always clear in the English translation.
In addition to the pronoun usages of the seventeenth century, the -eth and
-est verb endings, so familiar in the earlier King James editions, are now obsolete. Unless a
speaker is schooled in these verb endings, there is common difficulty in selecting the correct form to
be used with a given subject of the verb in vocal prayer. That is, should we use love, loveth,
or lovest? do, doeth, doest, or dost? have, hath, or hast? Because
these forms are obsolete, contemporary English usage has been substituted for the previous verb endings.
In older editions of the King James Version, the frequency of the connective and
far exceeded the limits of present English usage. Also, biblical linguists agree that the Hebrew and
Greek original words for this conjunction may commonly be translated otherwise, depending on the immediate
context. Therefore, instead of and, alternatives such as also, but, however, now, so, then,
and thus are accordingly rendered in the present edition, when the original language permits.
The real character of the Authorized Version does not reside in its archaic pronouns
or verbs or other grammatical forms of the seventeenth century, but rather in the care taken by its
scholars to impart the letter and spirit of the original text in a majestic and reverent style.
The format of the New King James Version is designed to enhance the vividness and
devotional quality of the Holy Scriptures:
- Subject headings assist the reader to identify topics and transitions in the biblical content.
- Words or phrases in italics indicate expressions in the original language which require
classification by additional English words, as also done throughout the history of the King James Bible.
- Oblique type in the New Testament indicates a quotation from the Old Testament.
- Poetry is structured as contemporary verse to reflect the poetic form and beauty of the passage in the
- The covenant name of God was usually translated from the Hebrew as "Lord" or "God" (using capital
letters as shown) in the King James Old Testament. This tradition is maintained. In the present edition
the name is so capitalized whenever the covenant name is quoted in the New Testament from a passage in the
The Old Testament Text
The Hebrew Bible has come down to us through the scrupulous care of ancient scribes
who copied the original text in successive generations. By the sixth century A.D. the scribes were
succeeded by a group known as the Masoretes, who continued to preserve the sacred Scriptures for another
five hundred years in a form known as the Masoretic Text. Babylonia, Palestine, and Tiberias were the
main centers of Masoretic activity; but by the tenth century A.D. the Masoretes of Tiberias, led by
the family of ben Asher, gained the ascendancy. Through subsequent editions, the ben Asher text became
in the twelfth century the only recognized form of the Hebrew Scriptures.
Daniel Bomberg printed the first Rabbinic Bible in 1516-17; that work was followed in
1524-25 by a second edition prepared by Jacob ben Chayyim and also published by Bomberg. The text of
ben Chayyim was adopted in most subsequent Hebrew Bibles, including those used by the King James
translators. The be Chayyim text was also used for the first two editions of Rudolph Kittel’s Biblia
Hebraica of 1906 and 1912. In 1937 Paul Kahle published a third edition of Biblia Hebraica.
This edition was based on the oldest dated manuscript of the ben Asher text, the Leningrad Manuscript
B19a (A.D. 1008), which Kahle regarded as superior to that used by ben Chayyim.
For the New King James Version the text used was the 1967/1977 Stuttgart edition of
the Biblia Hebraica, with frequent comparisons being made with the Bomberg edition of 1524-25.
The Septuagint (Greek) Version of the Old Testament and the Latin Vulgate also were consulted. In
addition to referring to a variety of ancient versions of the Hebrew Scriptures, the New King James
Version draws on the resources of relevant manuscripts from the Dead Sea caves. In the few places were
the Hebrew was so obscure that the 1611 King James was compelled to follow one of the versions, but
where information is now available to resolve the problems, the New King James Version follows the
Hebrew text. Significant variations are recorded in footnotes.
The New Testament Text
There is more manuscript support for the New Testament than for any other body of
ancient literature. Over five thousand Greek, eight thousand Latin, and many more manuscripts in other
languages attest the integrity of the New Testament. There is only one basic New Testament used by
Protestants, Roman Catholics, and Orthodox, by conservatives and liberals. Minor variations in hand
copying have appeared through the centuries, before mechanical printing began about A.D. 1450.
Some variations exist in the spelling of Greek words, in word order, and in similar
details. These ordinarily do not show up in translation and do not affect the sense of the text in any way.
Other manuscript differences such as omission or inclusion of a word or a clause, and
two paragraphs in the Gospels, should not overshadow the overwhelming degree of agreement which
exists among the ancient records. Bible readers may be assured that the most important differences in
English New Testaments of today are due, not to manuscript divergence, but to the way in which translators
view the task of translation: How literally should the text be rendered? How does the translator
view the matter of biblical inspiration? Does the translator adopt a paraphrase when a literal rendering
would be quite clear and more to the point? The New King James Version follows the historic precedent
of the Authorized Version in maintaining a literal approach to translation, except where the idiom of
the original language cannot be translated directly into our tongue.
The King James New Testament was based on the traditional text of the Greek-speaking
churches, first published in 1516, and later called the Textus Receptus or Received Text. Although based
on the relatively few available manuscripts, these were representative of many more which existed at
the time but only became known later. In the late nineteenth century, B. Westcott and F. Hort taught that
this text had been officially edited by the fourth-century church, but a total lack of historical evidence
for this event has forced a revision of the theory. It is now widely held that the Byzantine Text that
largely supports the Textus Receptus has as much right as the Alexandrian or any other tradition to be
weighed in determining the text of the New Testament.
Since the 1880s most contemporary translations of the New Testament have relied upon
a relatively few manuscripts discovered chiefly in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Such translations depend primarily on two manuscripts, Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus, because
of their greater age. The Greek text obtained by using these sources and the related papyri (our most
ancient manuscripts) is known as the Alexandrian Text. However, some scholars have grounds for doubting
the faithfulness of Vaticanus and Sinaiticus, since they often disagree with one another, and Sinaiticus
exhibits excessive omission.
A third viewpoint of New Testament scholarship holds that the best text is based on the
consensus of the majority of existing Greek manuscripts. This text is called the Majority Text. Most of
these manuscripts are in substantial agreement. Even though many are late, and none is earlier than the
fifth century, usually their readings are verified by papyri, ancient versions, quotations from the early
church fathers, or a combination of these. The Majority Text is similar to the Textus Receptus, but it
corrects those readings which have little or no support in the Greek manuscript tradition.
Today, scholars agree that the science of New Testament textual criticism is in a state
of flux. Very few scholars still favor the Textus Receptus as such, and then often for its historical
prestige as the text of Luther, Calvin, Tyndale, and the King James Version. For about a century most
have followed a Critical Text (so called because it is edited according to specific principles of textual
criticism) which depends heavily upon the Alexandrian type of text. More recently many have abandoned
this Critical Text (which is quite similar to the one edited by Wescott and Hort) for one that is more
eclectic. Finally, a small but growing number of scholars prefer the Majority Text, which is close to
the traditional text except in the Revelation.
In light of these facts, and also because the New King James Version is the fifth revision
of a historic document translated from specific Greek texts, the editors decided to retain the traditional
text in the body of the New Testament and to indicate major Critical and Majority Text variant readings
in the footnotes. Although these variations are duly indicated in the footnotes of the present edition,
it is most important to emphasize that fully eighty-five percent of the New Testament text is the same
in the Textus Receptus, the Alexandrian Text, and the Majority Text.
New King James Footnotes
Significant explanatory notes, alternate translations, and cross-references, as well as
New Testament citations of Old Testament passages, are supplied in the footnotes.
Important textual variants in the Old Testament are identified in a standard form.
The textual notes in the present edition of the New Testament make no evaluation of readings,
but do clearly indicate the manuscript sources of readings. They objectively present the facts without
such tendentious remarks as "the best manuscripts omit" or "the most reliable manuscripts
read." Such notes are value judgments that differ according to varying viewpoints on the text. By
giving a clearly defined set of variants the New King James Version benefits readers of all textual persuasions.
Where significant variations occur in the New Testament Greek manuscripts, textual notes
are classified as follows:
There variations from the traditional text generally represent the Alexandrian or Egyptian
type of text described previously in "The New Testament Text." They are found in the Critical
Text published in the twenty-sixth edition of the Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament (N) and in the United
Bible Societies’ third edition (U), hence the acronym, "NU-Text."
This symbol indicates points of variation in the Majority Text from the traditional
text, as also previously discussed in "The New Testament Text." It should be noted that M
stands for whatever reading is printed in the published Greek New Testament According to the Majority Text,
whether supported by overwhelming, strong, or only a divided majority textual tradition.
The textual notes reflect the scholarship of the past 150 years and will assist the reader
to observe the variations between the different manuscript traditions of the New Testament. Such information
is generally not available in English translations of the New Testament.