Dutch philosopher, Benedictus de (born Baruch) Spinoza was the first to publish a widely read theo-political treatise,
Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (1670, chapters VII-X), that challenged the dating and
authorship of the Pentateuch with the hypothesis that it was composed by Ezra or a later editor. His hypothesis was based on historical
evidence of post-Mosaic dating.
French physician, Jean Astruc, published Conjectures on the Original Memoranda Which It Appears Moses Used to Compose the Book of
Genesis (1753), which proposed that the variations in God's name, Yahweh or Elohim, indicated that different sources were used for
Genesis. This was the beginning of Source Criticism.
He felt that the inconsistencies, parallel accounts, discrepancies and contradictions were the result of combining the
two different sources.