But how does one determine an ethical standard?
From the perspective of human reason and will, the test of a moral value was by its consequence,
and moral values became rules of behavior after a long time of trial and error.
For example, the moral value of personal integrity instilled trust and promoted cooperation which was beneficial
to the survival of the individual and group.
Whereas murder caused distrust and inspired retribution, a moral value which was adverse to the survival of an
individual and group. Thus personal integrity was a valued ethic.
This method of reasoning what is morally right or wrong is called
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